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Seventh Edition. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth, 

THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING: A Practical Hand- 

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METALS. Being a new edition of Alexander AVatt's "Electro- 
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ELECTRO-METALLURGY : Practically Treated. 

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eHitlt a ¿pcscription oí tkt Jttachinern anb ^piíüanas Visto 











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In the present volunie, while describing the various opera- 
tions involved in the manufacture of paper, the Author 
has endeavoured to render the work serviceable as a book 
of reference in respect to the processes and improvements 
which have from time to time been introduced, and many 
of which have been more or less practically applied either 
at home or abroad. 

The recovery of soda from waste liquors has been fully 
dealt with, and the details of several applied processes 

Special attention has also been directed to some of the 
more important methods of producing pulp from wood 
fibre, since it is highly probable that from this inexhaus- 
tible source the paper-maker will ultimately derive much 
of the cellulose used in his manufacture. Indeed it may 
be deemed equally probable, when the processes for dis- 
integrating wood fibre, so largely applied in America 
and on the Continent, become better understood in this 
country, that their adoption here will become more ex- 
tensive than has hitherto been the case. 


To render the work more readily understood alike by 
the practical operator and the student, care has been 
taken to avoid, as far as possible, the introduction of 
unexplained technicalities ; at the same time it has been 
the writer's aim to furnish the reader with a variety of 
information which, it is hoped, will prove both useful and 

It is with much pleasure that the Author tenders his 
sincere thanks to Mr. Sydney Spalding, of the Horton 
Kirby Mills, South Darenth, for his kind courtesy in 
conducting him through the various departments of the 
mili, and for explaining to him the operations períbrmed 
therein. To Mr. Frank Lloyd he also acknowledges his 
indebtedness for the generous readiness with which he 
accompanied him over the Daily Chronicle Mili at Sitting- 
bourne, and for the pains he took to supply information 
as to certain details at the Author's request. His best 
thanks are also due to those manufacturers of paper- 
making machinery who supplied him with many of the 
blocks which illustrate the pages of the book. 





Cellulose — Action of Acids on Cellulose — Ph3'sical Characteristics oí 
Cellulose — Micrographic Examination of Vegetable Fibres — 
Determination of Cellulose— Recognition of Vegetable Fibres by 
tbe Microscope ......... .1 



Raw Materials — Raga — Disinf ecting Machine — Straw — Esparto Grass 

— Wood — Bamboo — Paper Mulberry 9 



Preliminary Operations— Sorting — Cutting — Bertrams' Rag-cutting 
Machine— Nuttall's Rag-cutter— "Willowing — Bertrams' Willow 
and Duster — Dusting — Bryan Donliin's Duster or Willow — 
Donkin's Devil 19 


TREATMENT OF RAGS {continued) . 

Boiling Bags — Bertrams' Bag-boiler — Donkin's Rag-boiler — Washing 
and Breaking — Bertrams' Rag-engine — Bentley and Jackson's 
Rag-engine — Draining — Torrance's Drainer . . . .29 




Preliminary Treatment — Picking — Willowing Esparto — Boiling 
Esparto— Sinclair* s Esparto Boiler — Roeckner's Boiler — Mallary's 
Procesa — Carbonell's Process — Washing Boiled Esparto — 
Young's Process — Bleaching the Esparto . o . 40 



T. Chemical Processes — Watt and Burgess's Process — Sinclair's 
Process — Keegan's Process — American "VVood-pulp System — 
Aussedat's Process — Acid Treatment of Wood — Pictet and 
Brélaz's Process — Barre and Blondel's Process — Poncharac's 
Process — Young and Pettigrew's Process — Fridet and Matus- 
siére's Process 63 


TREATMENT OF WOOB {continúen). 

Sulphite Processes — Francke's Process — Ekman's Process — Dr. Mit- 
scherlich's Process — Bitter and Kellner's Boiler — Partington's 
Process — Blitz's Process — M'Dougall's Boiler for Acid Pro- 
cesses — Graham's Process — Objections to the Acid or Sulphite 
Processes — Sulphite Fibre and Eesin — Adamson's Process — 
Sulphide. Processes — Ix. Mechatíical Phocesses — Voelter's 
Process for preparing Wood-pulp— Thune's Process . .68 



Treatment of Straw — Bentley and Jackson's Boiler — Boiling the 
Straw — Bertrams' Edge-runner — M. A. C. Mellier's Process — 
Manilla, Jute, &c. — "Waste Paper — Boiling Waste Paper — 
Ryan's Process for TreatiDg Waste Paper 80 





Bleaching Operations — Sour Bleaching— Bleaching witli Chloride 
of Lime — Donkin's Bleach Mixer — Bleaching with Chlorine Gas 
(Grlaser's Process) — Electrolytic Bleaching (C. Watt's Process) 
— Hermite's Process — Andreoli's Process —Thompson's Process 
— Lnnge's Process — Zinc Bleach Liquor — Alum Bleach Liquor 
— New Method of Bleaching 89 



Beating — Mr. Dunbar's Ohservations on Beating — Mr. Arnot on 
Beating Engines — Mr. Wyatt on American Befining Engines — 
The Beating Engine — Forbes' Beating Engine — TJmpherston's 
Beating Engine — Operation of Beating — Test for Chlorine — 
Blending 101 



Loading — Sizing — French Method of preparing Engine Size — Zinc 
Soaps in Sizing — Colouring — Animal or Tub Sizing — Prepara- 
tion of Animal Size — American Method of Sizing — Machine 
Sizing — Double-sized Paper — Mr. Wyatt's Eemarks on Sizing . ] 14 


The Vat and Mould — Making the Paper — Sizing and Finishíng . 129 



The Fourdrinier Machine — Bertrams' Large Paper Machine — Stuff 
Chests— Strainers — Bevolving Strainer and Knotter — Self- 



cleansing Strainer — Eoeckner's Pulp Strainers — The Machine 
"Wire and its Accessoríen — Conical Pulp-Saver — The Dandy- 
Boll — Water-Marking — De la Rue's Improvements in Water- 
Marks — Suction Boxes — Couch Eolls — Press Rolls — Drying 
Cylinders — Smoothing Eolls — Single Oylinder Machines . .133 



Web-Glazing — Glazing Calender — Damping Eolls — Finishing — 
Píate Glazing — Donkin's Glazing Press — Mr. Wyatt on Ame- 
rican Super-Calendering — Mr. Arnot on Finishing — Cutting — 
Eevolving Knife Cutter — Bertrams' Single-sheet Cutter — 
Packing the finished Paper — Sizes of Paper . . . . 154 



Coloured Papers — Colouring Matters used in Paper-making — 
American Combinations for Colouring — Mixing Colouring Ma- 
terials with Pulp — Colouring Paper for Artificial Flowers — 
Stains for Glazed Papers — Stains for Morocco Papers — Stains 
for Satin Papers 165 



Waterproof Paper— Scoffern and Tidcombe's Procesa — Dr. Wright's 
Process for preparing Cupro-Ammonium — Jouglet's Procesa — 
Waterproof Composition for Paper — Toughening Paper — Mor- 
fit's Proceas— Transparent Paper— Tracing Paper— Varnished 
Paper— Oiled Paper— Lithographic Paper — Cork Paper— New 
Japanese Paper— Blotting Paper — Parchment Paper — Mili and 
Cardboard — Making Paper or Cardboard with two Faces by 
ordinary Machine — Test Papers 174 





Bentley and Jackson's Drum "Washer — Drying Cylínders — Self- 
acting Dry Felt Regulator — Paper Cutting Machine — Single- 
web Winding Machine — Cooling and Damping Eolls — Reversing 
or Plate-glazing Calender — Plate-planing Machine — Roll-bar 
Plamng Machine — Washing Oylinder for Rag Engine — Bleach 
Pump — Three-roll Smoothing Presses — Back-water Pump — 
Web-glazing Calender — Reeling Machine — Web-ripping Ma- 
chine — Roeckner's Olarifier — Marshall's Perfecting Engine . 184 



Recovery of Soda — E vapora ting Apparatus — Roeckner's Evaporator 
— Porion's Evaporator — Yaryan's Evaporator — American Sys- 
tem of Soda Recovery 204 



Examination of Commercial Sodas — Mohr's Alkalimeter — Prepara- 
tion of the Test Acid — Sampling Alkalies — The Assay — Estima- 
tion of Chlorine in Bleaching Powder — Fresenius' Method — 
Gay-Lussac's Method — The Test Liquor — Testing the Sample — 
Estimation of Alumina in Alum Cake, &c 221 



Preparation of Lakes — Brazil-wood Lake — Cochineal Lake — Lac 
Lake — Madder Lake — Orange Lake — Yellow Lake — Artificial 
Ultramarine — Twaddell's Hydrometer — Imitation Manilla from 
Wood-pulp — Testing Ultramarmes — Strength of Paper . . 235 


Tables. — Dalton's Table showing the Proportion of Dry Soda in 
Leys of different Densities — Table of Strength of Caustic Soda 
Solutions at 59° F. = 150° C. (Tünnerman) — Table showing 
the Specific Gravity corresponding with the Degrees of Baumé's 
Hydrometer — Table of Boiling Points of Alkaline Leys — Table 
showing the Quantity of Caustic Soda in Leys of different 
Densities — Table showing the Quantity of Bleaching Liquid 
at 6 o Twaddell (specific gravity 1-030) required to be added to 
Weaker Liquor to raise it to the given Strengths — Compara- 
tive French and English Thermometer Scales — Weights and 
Measures of the Metrical System — Table of French Weights 
and Measures 241 

List of Works relating to Paper Manufacture . . . 246 






Cellulose. — Action of Acida on Cellulose. — Physical Characteristics of 
Cellulose. — Micrographic Examination of Vegetable Fibres. — Deter- 
mination of Cellulose. — Eecognition of Vegetable Fibres by tbe 

Cellulose. — Vegetable fibre, wben deprived of all incrust- 
ing or eementing matters of a resinous or gummy nature, 
presents to us tbe true fibre, or cellulose, wbicb constitutes 
tbe essential basis of all manufactured paper. Fine linen 
and cotton are almost puré cellulose, from tbe fact tbat 
tbe associated vegetable substances bave been removed by 
tbe treatment tbe fibres were subjected to in tbe process 
of tbeir manufacture ; puré wbite, unsized, and unloaded 
paper may also be considered as puré cellulose from tbe 
same cause. Viewed as a cbemical substance, cellulose is 
wbite, translucent, and somewbat beavier tban water. It 
is tasteless, inodorous, absolutely innutritious, and is in- 
soluole in water, alcobol, and oils. Dilute acids and 
alkalies, even wben bot, scarcely affect it. By prolonged 
boiling in dilute acids, bowever, cellulose undergoes a 
gradual cbange, being converted into hydro-cellulose. It 
is also affected by boiling water alone, especially under 
bigb pressure, if boiled f or a lengtbened period. Witbout 
going deeply into tbe cbemical properties of cellulose, 


wbicb would be more interesting to the cliemist tban to 
tlie paper manufacturer, a few data respecting tlie action 
of certain cliemical substances upon cellulose will, it is 
boped, be found useful from a practical point of view, 
especially at tlie present day, wben so many new metbods 
of treating vegetable fibres are being introduced. 

Action of Acicls on Cellulose. — Wben concentrated 
sulpburic acid is added very gradually to about balf its 
weigbt of linen rags cut into small sbreds, or strips of un- 
sized paper, and contained in a glass vessel, witb constant 
stirring, tbe fibres gradually swell up and disappear, witb- 
out tbe evolution of any gas, and a tenacious mucilage is 
formed wbicb is entirely soluble in water. If , after a few 
bours, tbe mixture be diluted with water, tbe acid neu- 
tralised witb cbalk, and after íiltration, any excess of lime 
tbrown down by cautiously adding a solution of oxalic 
acid, tbe liquid yields, after a second íiltration and tbe 
addition of alcobol in considerable excess, a gummy mass 
wbicb possesses all tbe cbaracters of dextrin. If instead 
of at once saturating tbe diluted acid witb cbalk, we boil 
it for four or five bours, tbe dextrin is entirely converted 
into grape sugar (glucose), wbicb, by tbe addition of cbalk 
and íiltration, as before, and evaporation at a gentle beat 
to tbe consistence of a syrup, will, after repose for a few 
days, f urnisb a concrete mass of crystallised sugar. Cotton, 
linen, or unsized paper, tbus treated, yield fully tbeir own 
weigbt of gum and one-sixtb of tbeir weigbt of grape 
sugar. Puré cellulose is readily attacked by, and soon 
becomes dissolved in, a solution of oxide of copper in 
ammonia (cuprammonium), and may again be precipitated 
in colourless flakes by tbe addition of an excess of bydro- 
cbloric acid, and afterwards filtering and wasbing tbe 
precipitate. Concentrated boiling bydrocbloric acid con- 
verts cellulose into a fine powder, witbout, bowéver, alter- 
ing its composition, wbile strong nitric acid forms nitro- 
substitution products of various degrees, according to tbe 
strengtb of tbe acid employed. "Cblorine gas passed 
into water in wbicb cellulose is suspended rapidly oxidises 


and destroys it, and the same effect takes place when 
hypochlorites, such as hypochlorite of calcium, or bleach- 
ing liquors, are gently treated with it. It is not, there- 
fore, the cellulose itself which we want the bleaching 
liquor to opérate upon, but only the colouring matters 
associated with it, and care must be taken to secure that 
the action intended for the extraneous substances alone 
does not extend to the fibre itself. Caustic potash affects 
but slightly cellulose in the form in which we have to do 
it, but in certain less compact conditions these agents 
decompose or destroy it." — Arnot* 

Physical Characteristics of Cellulose " The physical 

condition of cellulose," says Mr. Arnot, " after it has been 
freed from extraneous matters by boiling, bleaching, and 
washing, is of great importance to the manufacturer. 
Some fibres are short, hard, and of polished exterior, 
while others are long, flexible, and barbed, the former, it 
is scarcely necessary to say, yielding but indifferent 
papers, easily broken and torn, while the papers produced 
from the latter class of fibres are possessed of a great 
degree of strength and flexibility. Fibres from straw, 
and from many varieties of wood, may be taken as repre- 
sentativos of the former class, those from hemp and flax 
affording good illustrations of the latter. There are, of 
course, between these extremes all degrees and combina- 
tions of the various characteristics indicated. It will be 
readily understood that hard, acicular f fibres do not f elt 
well, there being no intertwining or adhesión of the vari- 
ous partióles, and the paper produced is friable. On the 
other hand, long, flexible, elastic fibres, even though com- 
paratively smooth in their exterior, intertwine readilv, 

and felt into a strong tough sheet Cotton fibre is 

long and tubular, and has this peculiarity, that when dry 
the tubes collapse and twist on their axes, this property 
greatly assisting the adhesión of the partióles in the pro- 
cess of paper-making. In the process of dyeing cotton, 

* Cantor Lectures, Journal of Society of Arts, vol. xxvi. p. 74. 
t Needle-shaped, slender and sharp-pointed. 


the colouring matter is absorbed into the tubes, and is, as 
will be readily appreciated, diflicult of removal theref rom. 
Papers made exclusively of cotton fibre are strong and 
flexible, but bave a certain sponginess about them which 
papers made from linen do not possess." 

Linen — the cellulose of the flax-plant — before it reaches 
the hands of the paper-maker has been subjected to cer- 
tain processes of steeping or retting, and also subsequent 
boilings and bleachings, by which the extraneous matters 
have been removed, and it therefore requires but little 
chemical treatment at his hands. "Linen fibre," Arnot 
further observes, " is like cotton, tubular, but the walls of 
the tubes are somewhat thicker, and are jointed or notched 
like a cañe or rush ; the notches assist greatly in the adhe- 
sión of the fibres one to another. This fibre possesses the 
other valuable properties of length, strength, and flexibility, 
and the latter property is increased when the walls of the 
tubes are crushed together under the action of the beating- 
engine." From this fibre a very strong, compactly felted 
paper is made ; indeed, no better material than this can be 
had f or the production of a first-class paper. Ropes, coarse 
bags, and suchlike are made from hemp, the cellulose or fibre 
of which is not unlike that of flax, only it is of a stronger, 
coarser nature. Manilla * yields the strongest of all fibres. 
Jute, which is the fibre or inside bark of an Indian plant 
(Cor choras capsularis), yields a strong fibre, but is very 
difiicult to bleach white. Esparto fibre holds an interme- 
díate place between the fibres just described and those of 
wood and straw. . . . The fibre of straw is short, pointed, 
and polished, and cannot of itself make a strong paper. 
The nature of wood fibre depends, as may readily be sup- 
posed, upon the nature of the wood itself. Yellow pine, 
for example, yields a fibre long, soft, and flexible, in fact 
very like cotton ; while oak and many other woods yield 
short circular fibres which, unless perfectly free from 
extraneous matters, possess no flexibility, and in any case 
are not elastic. 

* Manilla hemp. 


Micrograpliic Examination of Vegetable Fibres. — The 

importance of the microscope in the examination of the 
various fibres that are employed in paper manufacture will 
be readily evident f rom the delicate nature of the cellulose 
to be obtained therefrom.* Amongst others M. Girard 
has deterniined, by this method of examination, the quali- 
ties which fibres ought to possess to suit the requirements 
of tha. manuf acturer. He states that absolute length is 
not of much importance, but that the fibre should be 
slender and elastic, and possess the property of turning 
upon itself with facility. Tenacity is of but secondary 
importance, for when paper is torn the fibres scarcely ever 
break. The principal fibres employed in paper-making 
are divided into the following classes : — 

1. Round, ribbecl fibres, as hemp and flax. 

2. Smooth, or feebly-ribbed fibres, as esparto, jute, phor- 

mium (New Zealand flax), dwarf palm, hop, and 

3. Fibro-cettular substances, as the pulp obtained from 

the straw of wheat and rye by the action of caustic 

4. Fiat fibres, as cotton, and those obtained by the action 

of caustic ley upon wood. 

5. Imperfect substances, as the pulp obtained from saw- 

dust. In this class may also be included the fibre 
of the so-called " mechanical wood pulp." 

Determination of Cellulose. For the determination of 
cellulose in wood and other vegetable fibres to be used in 
paper-making Müller recommends the following pro- 
cesses : f 5 grammes weight of the finely-divided sub- 
stance is boiled four or five times in water, using 100 cubic 
centimétres % each time.. The residue is then dried at 
100° C. (212° Fahr.), weighed, and exhausted with a mix- 
ture of equal measures of benzine and strong alcohol, to 

* For this purpose, a microscope having a magnifying power of 120 to 
150 diameters will be found efficient. 
t " Commercial Organic Analysis." ByA.H. Alien, F.C.S., vol.i.p. 316. 
% For Table of French Measures see end of this work. 


remove fat, wax, resin, &c. The residue is again dried and 
boiled several times in water, to every 100 c.c. of which 
1 c.c. of strong ammonia has been added. This treatment 
removes colouring matter and pectous * substances. The 
residue is further bruised in a mortar if necessary, and is 
then treated in a closed bottle with 250 c.c. of water, and 
20 c.c. of bromine water containing 4 c.c. of bromine to 
the litre.f In the case of the purer bark-fibres, such as 
flax and hemp, the yellow colour of the liquid only slowly 
disappears, but with straw and woods decolorisation oceurs 
in a few minutes, and when this tafees place more bromine 
water is added, this being repeated until the yellow colour 
remains, and bromine can be detected in the liquid after 
twelve hours. The liquid is then filtered, and the residue 
washed with water and heated to boiling with a litre of 
water containing 5 c.c. of strong ammonia. The liquid 
and tissue are usually coloured brown by this treatment. 
The undissolved matter is filtered off, washed, and again 
treated with bromine water. When the action seems com- 
plete the residue is again heated with ammoniacal water. 
This second treatment is sufficient with the purer fibres, 
but the operation must be repeated as often as the residue 
imparts a brownish tint to the alkaline liquid. The 
cellulose is thus obtained as a puré white body ; it 
is washed with water, and then with boiling alcohol, 
after which it may be dried at 100° C. (212° Fahr.) and 

Kecognitioii of Vegetable Fibres by the Microscope. — 
From Mr. Allen's admirable and useful work on " Com- 
mercial Organic Analysis " + we make the following ex- 
traets, but must refer the reader to the work named for 
fuller information upon this important consideration of 
the subject. In examining fibres under the microscope, 

* Pectous, pertaining to or consisting of pectose or pectin. Pectose is a 
substance contained in the pulp of unripe fleshy fruit, also in fleshy roots 
and other vegetable organs. It is insoluole in water, but under the 
influence of acids is transformed into pectin. 

t A litre equals 34 fluid ounces nearly. 

% " Commercial Organic Analysis." By A. H. Alien, F.C.S., vol. i. 


it is recommended that the tissues should be cut up with 
sharp scissors, placed on a glass slide, moistened witli 
water, and covered with a piece of thin glass. TJnder these 
conditions : — 

Mlaments of Cotton appear as transparent tubes, flat- 
tened and twisted round their axes, and tapering off to a 
closed point at each end. A section of the filament some- 
what resembles the figure 8, the tube, originally cylindri- 
cal, having collapsed most in the middle, forming semi- 
tubes on each side, which give the fibre, when viewed 
in certain lights, the appearance of a flat ribbon, with the 
hem of the border at each edge. The twisted, or corkscrew 
form of the dried filament of cotton distinguishes it from 
all other vegetable fibres, and is characteristic of the ma- 
tured pod, M. Bauer having found that the fibres of the 
unripe seed are siinply untwisted cylindrical tubes, which 
never twist afterwards if separated from the plant. The 
matured fibres always collapse in the middle as described, 
and undergo no change in this respect when passing 
through all the various operations to which cotton is sub- 
ject, from spinning to its conversión into pulp for paper- 

Linen, or Flax Fibre, under the microscope, appears as 
hollow tubes, open at both ends, the fibres being smooth, 
and the inner tube very narrow, and joints, or septa* 
appear at intervals, but are not furnished with hairy 
appendages as is the case with hemp. When flax fibre is 
immersed in a boiling solution of equal parts of caustic 
potash and water for about a minute, then removed and 
pressed between folds of filter-paper, it assumes a dark 
yellow colour, whilst cotton under the same treatment 
remains white or becomes very bright yellow. When flax, 
or a tissue made from it, is immersed in oil, and then well 
pressed to remove excess of the liquid, it remains translu- 
cent, while cotton, under the same conditions, becomes 

* Sepia, plural of septum, a partition, as the partitions of an orange, for 


New Zealancl Flax (Phormium tenax) may be distin- 
guished f rom ordinary flax or heinp by a reddish colour 
produced on immersing it first in a strong chlorine water, 
and then in ammonia. In machine- dressed New Zealand 
flax the bundles are translucent and irregularly covered 
with tissue ; spiral fibres can be detected in the bundles, 
but less numerous than in Sizal. In Maori-prepared 
phorinium the bundles are almost wholly free f rom tissue, 
while there are no spiral fibres. 

Hemp Fibre resembles flax, and exhibits small hairy 
appendages at the joints. In Manilla hemp the bundles 
are oval, nearly opaque, and surrounded by a considerable 
quantity of dried-up cellular tissue composed of rectan- 
gular cells. The bundles are smooth, very few detached 
ultímate fibres are seen, and no spiral tissue. 

Sizal, or Sisal Hemp [Agave Americana), forms oval 
fibrous bundles surrounded by cellular tissue, a few smooth 
ultímate fibres projecting from the bundles ; is more trans- 
lucent than Manilla, and a large quantity of spiral fibres 
are mixed up in the bundles. 

Jute Fibre appears under the microscope as bundles of 
tendrils, each being a cylinder, with irregular thickened 
walls. The bundles offer a smooth cylindrical surface, to 
which the silky lustre of jute is due, and which is much 
increased by bleaching. By the action of hypochlorite of 
soda the bundles of fibres can be disintegrated, so that the 
single fibres can be readily distinguished under the micro- 
scope. Jute is coloured a deeper yellow by sulphate of 
aniline than is any other fibre. 


Materials used m paper-iiaking. 

Eaw Materials. — Rags. — Disinfecting Machine. — Straw. — Esparto 
G-rass. — Wood. — Bamboo. — Paper Mulberry. 

In former days the only materials employed for tlie 
manufacture of paper were lineii and cotton rags, flax and 
hemp waste, and some few other fibre-yielding materials. 
The reduction of the excise duty, however, from 3d. to 
l|d. per Ib., which took effect in the first year of Her 
Majesty's reign — namely, in 1837 — created a greatly in- 
creased demand for paper, and caused much anxiety 
amongst manjifacturers lest the supply of rags should 
prove inadequate to their requirements. Again, in the 
year 1861 the excise duty was totally abolished, from 
which period an enormously increased demand for paper, 
and consequently paper material, was created by the esta- 
blishment of a vast number of daily and weeídy papers 
and journals in all parts of the kingdom, besides reprints 
of standard and other works in a cheap form, the copy- 
right of which had expired. It is not too much to say, 
that unless other materials than those employed bef ore the 
repeal of the paper duty had been discovered, the abolition 
of the impost would have proved but of little service to 
the public at large. Beneficent Nature, however, has 
gradually, but surely and amply, supplied our needs 
through the instrumentality of man's restless activity and 

The following list comprises many of the substances 
from which cellulose, or vegetable fibre, can be separated 
for the purposes of paper-making with advantage ; but the 


vegetable kingdom furnishes in addition a vast number of 
plants and vegetables which may also be used with the same 
object. We have seen voluminous lists of fibre-yielding 
materials wbich bave been suggested as suitable for paper- 
making, but since the greater portion of them are never 
likely to be applied to such a purpose, we consider tbe 
time wasted in proposing them. It is true tbat tbe stalks 
of tbe cabbage tribe, for example, would be available for 
the sake of their fibre, but we should imagine tbat no' 
grower of ordinary intelligence would deprive bis ground 
of tbe nourishment sucb waste is capable of retuming to 
the soil, by its employment as manure, to furnisb a mate- 
rial for paper-making. Again, we bave seen blackberries, 
and even tbe pollen (!) of plants included in a list of paper 
materials, but fortunately tbe manuf acturer is never likely 
to be reduced to sucb extremities as to be compelled to 
use materials of tbis nature. 

Raw Materials. 

Cotton rags. 

Cotton wool. 

Cotton waste. 

Cotton-seed waste. 

Linen rags. 

Linen waste. 

Hemp waste. 

Manilla hemp. 

Flax waste, etc. 

Jute waste, etc. 

China grass. 

Bamboo cañe. 

Eattan cañe. 

Banana fibre. 

Straw of wneat, etc. 

Rushes of various kinds. 

New Zealand flax. 

Maize stems, husks, etc. 

Esparto grass. 


Woods of various kinds, espe- 
cially white non-resinous 
woods, as poplar, willow, etc. 

"VVood shavings, sawdust, and 

Barks of various trees, espe- 
cially of tbe paper mulberry. 


Twigs of common broom and 

Mustard stems after threshing. 

Buckwbeat straw. 

Tobacco stalks. 

Beetroot refuse from sugar 

Megass, or "cañe trash" — re- 
fuse of the sugar cañe after 
the juice has been extracted. 

Fern leaves. 

Tan waste. 

Dyers' wood waste. 

OÍd bagging. 

Oíd bast mattirig. 



Oíd canvas. 

Oíd rope. 

Grunny bags. 

Waste paper. 

Binders' clippings, etc. 


Oíd netting. Silk cocoon waste. 

Sailcloth. Oakum. 

Sea grass (Zostera marina). Flax tow. 

Fibrous waste resulting from Rag bagging. 

pharmaceuticalpreparations. Leather waste. 

Potato stalks. Tarpaulin. 
Stable manure. Etc., etc. 

Itags.— -Linen and cotton rags are imported into Great 
Britain-from almost all the countries of Europe, and even 
from the distant states of South. America, British South 
África, and Australasia. The greater proportion, how- 
ever, come from Germany. The rags collected in England 
chiefly pass through the hands of wholesale merchants 
established in London, Liverpool, Manchester, and Bristol, 
and these are sorted to a certain extent before they are 
sent to the paper-rnills. By this rough sorting, which 
does not include either cleansing or disinfecting, certain 
kinds of rags which would be useless to the paper-maker 
are separated and sold as manure. "Woollen rags are not 
usually mixed with cotton rags, but are generally kept 
apart to be converted into " shoddy." The importance of 
disinfecting rags before they pass through the hands of 
the workpeople employed at the paper-mills cannot be 
over-estimated, and it is the duty of every Government to 
see that this is effectually carried out, not only at such 
times when cholera and other epidemics are known to be 
rife in certain countries from which rags may be imported, 
but at all times, since there is no greater source of danger 
to the health of communities than in the diffusion of oíd 
linen and cotton garments, or pieces, which are largely 
contributed by the dwellers in the slums of crowded cities. 

Respecting the disinfecting of rags, Davis * thus ex- 
plains the precautions taken in the United States to guard 
against the dangers of infection from rags coming from 
foreign or other sources. " When cholera, or other in- 
fectious or contagious diseases exist in foreign countries, 
or in portions of the United States, the health officers in 
charge of the various quarantines in this country require 

* "Manufacture of Paper." By C. T. Davis, Philadelphia, 1887. 


that rags from countries and districts in which such 
diseases are prevalent shall be thoroughly disinfected 
before they are allowed to pass their stations. Rags 
shipped to London, Hull, Liverpool, Italian, or other 
ports, and re- shipped from such ports to the United 
States, areusually subjected to the same rule as if shipped 
direct from the ports of the country in which such 
diseases prevail. It is usually requisite that the disinfec- 
tion shall be made at the storehouse in the port of ship- 
ment, by boiling the rags several hours under a proper 
degree of pressure, or in a tightly-closed vessel, or disin- 
fected with sulphurous acid, which is evolved by burning 
at least two pounds of roll sulphur to every ten cubic feet 
of room space, the apartment being kept closed for several 
hours after the rags are thus treated. Disinfection by 
boiling the rags is usually considered to be the best 
method. In the case of rags imported from India, Egypt, 
Spain, and other foreign countries where cholera is liable. 
to become epidemic, it is especially desirable that some 
efíicient, rapid, and thorough process of disinfecting 
should be devised. In order to meet the quarantine 
requirements, it must be thorough and certain in its 
action, and in order that the lives of the workmen and of 
others in the vicinity may not be endangered by the 
liberating of active disease-germs, or exposiire of decay- 
ing and deleterious matters, and that the delay, trouble, 
and exposure of unbaling and rebaling may be avoided, it 
must be capable of use upon the rags while in the bale, 
and of doing its work rapidly when so used." 

Disinfecting Machine. — To facilítate the disinfecting 
of rags while in the bale, Messrs. Parker and Blackman 
devised a machine, for which they obtained a patent in 
1884, from which the following abstract is taken. 

Formerly rags and other fibrous materials were dis- 
infected by being subjected to germ-destroying gases or 
liquids in enclosed chambers, but in order to render the 
disinfecting process effectual, it was found necessary to 
treat the material in a loóse or separated state, no suc- 



cessful method having been adopted for disinfecting the 
materials while in the bale. " This unbaling and loosen- 
ing or spreading of the undisinfected material is abso- 
lutely unsafe and dangerous to the workmen, or to those 
in the vicinity, because of the consequent setting free of 
the disease gernis, and the exposing of any decaying or 
deleterious matters which may be held in the material 
while iiris compressed in the bale. The unbaling and neces- 
sary rebaling of the material for transportation also in- 
volves much trouble and expense and loss of time. Large 
and cumbrous paratus is also necessary to treat large 

quantities of material loosened or opened out as hereto- 

It is specially necessary that rags coming from Egypt 
and other foreign countries should be thoroughly disin- 
fected by some rapid and effectual means, which, while not 
endangering the health of workmen emplo}'ed in this some- 
what hazardous task, will fully meet all quarantine re- 
quirements. The apparatus devised by Messrs. Parker and 
Blackman,* an abridged description of which is given 
below, will probably accomplish this much-desired object. 
* Patent dated 16th Deceniber, 1884, No. 539. 



In the illustration, Fig. 1, A is the disinfecting cham- 
ber. At one end is an opening A 1 , and a door B, hinged 
at its lower edge and adapted to be swung up, so as to 
cióse the opening tightly. For supporting and carrying 
the bale c of material to be placed in the chamber is a 
carrriage c 1 , consisting of a platform supported upon 
wheels or castors c c. While the carriage is wholly within 
the chamber A, as shown in Fig. 2, these wheels rest upon 
the false bottom B 2 ; when the carriage is rolled back 
and out of the chamber, as shown in Fig. 1, they roll 
upon the upper face of door B swung down. The carriage 
is provided with a clamping device d to hold the bale 
firmly and immovably. To cause the carriage to move 
into and out of the chamber, the inventors provide upon 

eWc é~ 

Kg. 2. 

the under side of the platform a fixed sleeve E, interiorly 
threaded to fit the screw E 1 , journalled at one end near the 
opening in the chamber end in a stationary block E 2 fixed 
upon the false bottom b 2 . From this end the screw ex- 
tends along under the carriage through the screw sleeve 
and to the other end of the chamber. A collar e 2 on the 
screw bears against the inner end of this journal-bearing, 
and upon the end of the shank e bearing against the other 
end of the journal is fixed a pinion f, which is to be 


driven in either direction as desired. Abo ve tbis journal- 
bearing is a series of similar bearings (five being sbown), 
g g, passing tbrougb tbe wall of tbe cbamber. Of tbese 
tbe middle one is in a line witb tbe centre of tbe bale, 
supported and beld on tbe carriage. Tbe otbers are 
arranged at tbe corners of a square. Journalled in tbese 
bearings are tbe bollow sbanks h h of tbe bollow screws 
1 1 pointed at i 1 i 1 . Eacb screw is perforated, i i, between 
tbe tbreads i 1 i v f rom tbe fixed collar k k. Upon tbe 
tubular sbanks h h of tbe screws are fixed tbe gear- 
wbeels l l. At a sbort distance from tbe end of tbe 
cbamber a is tbe bollow cbamber or receptacle m, into 
wbicb is to be forced tbe disinfectant liquid or gas. Tbp 
tubular sbanks hh of tbe screws project tbrough tbe 
wall m, passing tbrougb stufling-boxes m m, and tbeir 
bores communicate witb tbe interior of tbe cbamber, tbe 
sbank of tbe middle screw being continued tbrougb tbe 
opposite wall and a stufiing-box, its solid or projecting 
end being provided witb two fixed pulleys, n n, and a 
loóse pulley o. "Wben a gaseous disinfectant is used, it 
can be forced by any desired means tbrougb tbe pipe s 
into tbe cbamber. Wbere a liquid disinfectant is used, 
an elevated tank r. containing tbe fluid may be used. As 
most fibrous materials, and especially rags, are baled so as 
to be in layers, it is preferable so to place tbe bale upon 
tbe carriage tbat tbe perforated screws may penétrate tbe 
material at rigbt angles to tbe layers by wbicb tbe gas or 
liquid issuing tbrougb tbe boles in tbe screws passes in all 
directions tbrougbout tbe mass witbin tbe bale. 

In tbe upper part of cbamber a are perforated sbelves 
v v, upon wbicb, if desired, tbe material can be spread 
out and subjected to disinfecting gas or vapour. On tbe 
top of tbe cbamber is a tank w nearly filled witb. disin- 
fecting liquid. A passage w x extends from upper part of 
tbe cbamber up into tbe tank above tbe level of tbe liquid 
tberein, and is tben carried at its end down below tbe sur- 
face of tbe liquid. At its otber end tbe tank is provided 
at its top witb a discbarge opening x and a suitable pipe 


x 1 , forming a continuation of the opening ; by this means 
all foul and deleterious vapours or gases passing out of 
the closed chamber a through the passage w must pass 
through the disinfecting liquid in the tank before escap- 
ing through the opening x and stack x l into the air, and 
are thns rendered harmless. 

When a sufficient amount of the disinfectant has been 
f orced into and through the bale, the disinfectant is turned 
of¥, and cold dry air can be forced through chamber m, 
and out through the nozzles and bale, whereby the 
material within the bale becomes cooled and dried, and all 
the foul air from the chamber a driven out, so that it may 
be 0|>ened and entered with safety. Any suitable disin- 
fectant may be used with this apparatus, as, for example, 
sulphurous acid, in gas or solution, superheated steam, 
carbolic acid, or any solution or vapour containing 

Straw. — Very large quantities of this material are used 
in the manufacture of paper, but more especially for news- 
papers, the straw from wheat and oats being mostly em- 
ployed. Although the percentage of cellulose in straw is 
about equal to that of esparto, the severe treatment it re- 
quires to effectually remove the silicious coating by which 
the fibre is protected, and to render the knots amenable 
to the action of the bleach, greatly reduces the yield of 
finished pulp. Many processes nave been introduced 
for the treatment of straw for paper-making, but the 
most successful of them appear to be modifications 
of a process introduced in 1853 by MM. Coupier and 

Esparto Grass. — This important fibrous material is 
largely imported from Algeria, Spain, and other countries, 
and constitutes one of the most valuable fibre-yielding 
materials with which the manufacturer has to dea!. Some 
idea of the amount of esparto and other fibres which find 
their way to our shores may be gleaned from the fact that 
while the import of cotton and linen rags in the year 1884 
was 36,233 tons, of the valué of £487,866, that of esparto 


and other fibres amounted to 184,005 tons, of the valué of 

Wood. — As a paper-making material, the fibre obtained 
from various kinds of wood now holds art important posi- 
tion, since the sources of supply are practically inex- 
haustible. The first practical process for manufacturing 
pulp from wood fibre was perfected and introduced by the 
author's»father, the late Mr. Charles Watt, who, in con- 
junction with Mr. H. Burgess, obtained a patent for the 
invention on August 19th, 1853. The process was after- 
wards publicly exhibited at a small works on the Hegent's 
Canal, when the Earl of Derby (then Lord Stanley), many 
scientific men and representatives of the press, were 
present, and expressed themselves well satisfied with its 
success. Specimens of the wood paper, including a copy 
of the Weekly Times printed thereon, were exhibited, as 
also some water- colour drawings which had been produced 
upon paper made from wood pulp. Failing to get the 
process taken up in England, an American patent was 
applied for and obtained in 1854, which was subsequently 
purchased ; but with the exception of an instalment, the 
purchase-money was never paid to the inventor ! Thus 
the process " got " into other hands, the original inventor 
alone being unbenefited by it. 

It has been repeatedly stated,* no doubt unwittingly, 
that a person named Houghton first introduced the wood 
paper process into this country ; but considering that his 
patent was not obtained until 1857, or four years after the 
process above referred to was patented and publicly ex- 
hibited in England, it will be seen that the statement is 
absolutely without foundation. The first knowledge Mr. 
Houghton received concerning wood as a paper-making 
material was from the author's father, and he (Mr. Hough- 
ton), in conjunction with Mr. Burgess, introduced the 
Watt and Burgess process into America in the year 1854. 
These are the facts. 

* "Forestry and Forest Products," p. 501, and Crosa and Bevan's 
" Text Book of Paper-making," p. 65. 



Bamboo [Bambusa mlgaris).—Th.e leaves and fresli-cut 
stems of this plant are used for paper material, but require 
to pass through a preliminary process of crushing, which 
is effected by suitable rolls, the secón d series of crushing 
rolls being grooved or channelled to split or divide the 
material, after whicli tbe stems are cut to suitable lengths 
for boiling. 

Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyriferd). — The inner 
bark of this tree, and also some other basts, have long been 
used by the Japanese and Chínese in the manufacture of 
paper of great strength, but of extreme delicacy. 


Preliminary Operations. — Sorting. — Cutting. — Bertrams' Eag-cutting 
Machine. — Nuttall's Eag-cutter. — Willowing. — Bertrams' Willow 
and Duster. — Dusting. — Bryan Donkin's Duster or WiUow. — 
Donkin's "Devil." 

Preliminary Operations. — Before the rags are submitted 
to tlie various processes which constitute the art of paper- 
making, they are subjected to certain preliminary opera- 
tions to free them from dirty matters, dust, and even 
sand, which is sometimes fraudulently introduced into 
rags to increase their weight. This preliminary treatment 
may be classified under the following heads, namely : — 
Sorting ; Cutting ; Willowing ; Dusting. 

Sorting. — The rags being removed from the bags or 
bales in which they are packed, require first to be sorted 
according to the nature and quality of the fabrics of 
which they are composed ; thus linen, cotton, hemp, wool, 
&c, must be carefully separated from each other ; the 
thickness of the substance, its condition as to the wear it 
has undergone, and the colour of the material, all these 
considerations are taken into account by the women and 
girls who are employed in the operation of sorting. The 
finer qualities are set aside for writing-paper, inferior 
sorts being used separately, or mixed, according to the 
requirements of the manufacturer. Blue rags are gene- 
ral ly separated from the rest and kept for the manufacture 
of blue paper, but most of the other coloured rags require 
bleaching. In sorting rags, a good deal of judgment and 
skill are required to avoid mixing the better qualities with 
those of an inferior class, which would occasion loss in the 


manufacture. It is also important that those of inferior 
colour should not be mixed with the finer qualities, which 
would be liable to affect the colour and deteriórate the 
quality of the paper. Paper manufacturers generally 
classif y the rags obtained f rom home sources, that is, f rom 
diff erent parts of the United Kingdom, under the f ollowing 
heads : — 

Home Rags. 

New cuttings. 
Linen pieces. 
Cotton pieces. 
Fines (whites). 
¡Superfines (whites). 
Outshots (whites). 
¡Seconds (whites). 
Thirds (whites). 

Golours or prints» 

Gunny, clean. 
Gunny, dirty. 
Rope (white). 
Eope (hard). 
Rope, bagging, et& 

Foreign rags are distinguished as below : — 

Belgian Rags. 

White linens. 

Mixed fines (linens and cot- 

Grey linens. 
Strong linens. 
Extra fine linens . 
Blue linens. 

¡Superfine white cottona. 
Outshot cottons. 

Half jute and linen. 

Light prints. 

Mixed prints. 

Blue cottons. 


Black calicóes. 

White hemp, strings, and rope, 

Tarred hemp, strings, and rope. 

Jute spinners' waste. 

Jute waste. 


White linens. 
Grey linens. 
Blue linens. 
Unbleached cottons. 
White linens and cottons. 

Print cuttings (free from 


French linena. 
White cotton. 
Knitted cotton. 
Blue cotton. 
Coloured cotton. 

French Rags. 

Black cotton. 
Marseilles whites. 
Light prints. 
Mixed prints. 
New white cuttings. 



Germán Bags. 

S. P. F. F. F. 

l. f. b. blue. 

S. P. V. 

C. S. P. F. F. F. 

F. F. 

c. f. b. blue. 

F. G. 

c. f. x. coloured. 

L. X. F. 


p. p. white linen (first). 

s. fine grey s. 

p. white linen (second). 

x. coló urea cottons. 


p. l. linens. 

s. c. 

p. c. cottons. 

T. C. 


Bright reds. 



Blues. Coloura, 

Baltic and Bussian. 

8. 5. F. F. 

F. F. 

S. P. F. 

lí. G. 

X. F. B. 

L. F. X. 

Woollen rags are only used to a very modérate extern 
in blotting and filtering papers and also in coarse papers 
and wrappers. Many attempts have been made to bleach 
woollen rags, but tbe severity of tbe treatment required 
invariably ended in a destruction of the fibrous substances 
mingled with tbeni. It is customary to dispose of such 
material for re-making into common cloths, and for 
snoddy. Rags collected in large cities, in consequence 
of th.9 frequent bleacbings tbey have been subjected to, 
are considerably weakened in fibre, tearing easily, and are 
therefore subject to loss in process of manufacture into 
pulp. Country rags, being coarser and greyer because less 
bleacbed, are stronger in fibre and give a better body to 
tbe paper. In sampling rags it is necessary to take pre- 
cautions against tbe fraudulent " tricks of the trade," 
which are often resorted to to cheat the manufacturer. 
Samples should be taken from the interior of the bags 


or bales, to ascertain if the material in the interior 
is equal in quality with that at the outside — that is 
to sajr, that the quality is fairly averaged throughout. It 
nía y also be found that the rags have been purposely 
wetted to increase their weight. If such is found to be 
the case, a few handfuls should be weighed, and then 
dried in a warm room, and afterwards re-weighed, when 
if the loss exceeds 5 to 7 per cent, it may be assumed 
that the rags have been fraudulently wetted. It is gene- 
rally found, however, that the merchants in the principal 
towns transact their business honourably and are theref ore 

The sorting is generally perf ormed by women, who not 
only sepárate the various qualities of the rags, which 
they place in sepárate receptacles, but also remove all 
buttons, hooks and eyes, india-rubber, pins and needles, 
&c, and loosen all seams, hems and knots. The rags 
are next carefully looked over by women called over- 
haulers, or over-lookers, whose duty it is to see that the 
previous operations have been fully carried out in all 
respects. Usually there is one over-hauler to every eight 
or tez» cutters. 

Cuttiiig. — In some milis it is pref erred to have the rags 
cut into pieces from 2 to 4 inches square, but the actual 
size is not considered of much importance. The chief 
object is to have them in such a condition that they may 
be thoroughly cleansed in subsequent operations, and able 
to float throughout the water in the rag-engine, without 
twisting round the roller. If the rag pieces are smaller 
than is required to effect this it tends to créate a loss of 
fibre in the operations of willowing and dusting. 

The process of cutting is performed by hand or 
by machinery. When the rags are cut by hand, the 
operation, which is accomplished by women, is conducted 
as follows : — The cutter takes her place in front of an 
oblong box, as in Fig. 3, covered with coarse wire netting, 
containing three threads per inch, through which dust, 
&c, passes to a receptacle beneath ; in the centre is fixed, 




in a slanting position, a large-bladed knife of peculiar 

form, with its back towards the operator, who is sur- 

rounded by a number of 

boxes, corresponding with 

the number of the dif- 

f erent qualities of rags ; 

these are lined at the bot- 

tom with coarse wire 

gauze. In the operation 

of cutting, if any foreign 

substances, such as but- 

tons, hooks, &c., which 

may have escaped the 

sorters are found, these 

are at once removed. The 

rags as they are cut are 

put into baskets to be 

conveyed to the rag-engine room. In some milis rags 

are cut by machinery, bu<t hand cutting is usually adopted 

for the better kinds of paper, as it is obvious that the 

machine would not be able to reject, as is the case in 

hand cutting, unpicked seams and other irregularities 

which may have escaped observation by the sorters and 

overhaulers. Machine cutting is, therefore, generally 

adopted for the materials which are to be used for the 

coarser papers. There are several rag-cutting machines 

in use, of which one or two examples are given below. 

Bertrams' Rag-Cutting Machine. — The engraving, 
Fig. 4, represents a machine manufactured by Messrs. 
Bertrams, Limited, of St. Katherine's Works, Edin- 
burgh, to whose courtesy we are indebted for this 
and other illustrations of their machinery, which have 
been reproauced in outline from their illustrated cata- 
logue. The machine, which is suitable either for rags or 
ropes, has three revolving knives, and one dead knife, 
which is rendered reversible to four edges, and has self- 
acting feed gear, side frames, drum, and other connec- 
tions of substantial construction : it is wood covered, and 



furnished with sheet-iron delivery spout. The material 
passes into the machine along the table at a, where it 

Fig. 4. 

passes between the dead knife c and the knives b fixed to 
the revolving drum d. The cut rags fall into a receptacle 
beneath the drum. 

WTuttall's E-ag Cutter. — Another type of rag cutter, 
and which is also suitable for cutting bagging, sailcloth, 
tarpaulin, Manilla and other libres, is NuttalTs Rag Cut- 
ter, a drawing of which is shown in Fig. 5. This 
machine is manufactured by Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, 
of Bury, near Manchester, and is generally known as 
the "Guillotine Rag Cutter," from the principie of its 
action, which is that of chopping the material. The 
machine is adopted at many milis, and a large-sized 
machine has recently been put down at the Daily Tele- 
graph milis, Dartford. A medium-sized machine will cut 
about one ton of rags in an hour. 

"Willowing. — In some milis the cut rags are conveyed 
to a machine called the " willow," which in one form of 
machine consists of two cast-iron cylinders, 2\ f eet in dia- 



meter and 3^ feet wide, provided with numerous iron 
teeth, which project about 4 inches. These cylinders are 
placed one behind the other, and beneath them is a semi- 

Fig. 5. 

circular screw, and above theni a cover of the same form. 
This cover is also furnished with. teeth, and is so adj usted 
that the teeth in the cylinders pass those in the cover at 
a distance of i| to f of an inch. In front are a pair of 
rollers and revolving apron, which carry the rags into the 
cylinders, which rotate rapidly ; and the rags, which are 
thrown by the first into the second cylinder, are allowed 
to remain in them for about 20 seconds, when a sliding 
door, which rises three times per minute, allows the rags 
to be discharged into a duster. Each time the sliding 
door opens the revolving apron moves forward and re- 
charges the willow with a fresh supply. The rags, after 
being beaten and teazed in the willow, are considerably 
loosened in texture, and a good deal of dust and gritty 
matters fall through the screen beneath. 

Fig. 6 represents a combined willow and duster, speci- 
ally useful for waste rags and jute, but may be used for 
all fibres, manufactured by Bertrams, Limited, the main 
features of which are thus described : — " There are two 
drums, which have malleable-iron cross-bars and teeth, 
and malleable-iron harp motion below for escape of dust. 



The f ramework of the willow is of cast iron, and the sides 
are filled in with cast-iron panel doors, the top being 
covered in with. sheet iron. The gear is arranged so that 
the willow will deliver to the duster or otherwise by self- 
acting motion continuously or intermittently. The feed 
to the willow can also be made continuous or intermittent. 
The drums, f ramework, panels, and casing being made of 
iron, the chance of fire f rom the friction of its working is 
reduced to a minimum. The duster, as a rule, is 12 feet 

Fig. 6. 

long, about 5 feet in diameter, and has eight longitudinal 
bars of cast iron fitted between the front and end revolving 
rings. These bars are fitted with malleable-iron spikes, 
pitched and so arranged that the rags or fibres are delivered 
at the exit end automatically. The outside of the duster 
can be lined with wire-cloth, perforated zinc, iron, etc. 
It is driven by outside shafts and friction gear, so that 
there is no internal shaft to interf ere with the delivery of 
the fibres." 

Dusting. — In Fig. 7 is shown a rag-dusting machine, 
manufactured by Messrs. Bryan Donkin and Co., of Ber- 
mondsey, London. The cylinder of this machine, which 
is conical in form, to enable the rags to travel from one 
end to the other, whence they are ejected, revolves, as 
also does a second cylinder of a skeleton form, but in 
the opposite direction. Each cylinder is fitted with 
knives, or spikes — those of the outer cylinder projecting 



towards the centre; the knives of the centre cylinder 
being attached to its exterior surf ace : when the machine 
is in motion the two sets of blades pass each other so 
that when the rags come between them the action is that 

Kg. 7. 

of scissors. When the rags are ejected at the end of the 
cylinder, they pass into another cylinder of wire, through 
which the dust falls and leaves them in a fairly clean 
condition, when they are lowered through a trap-door to 
the boiling room below. 

Donkin's "Devil."— For removing the dust and dirt 
from coarse and very dirty rags, oakum, rope, etc., the 


presence of which would seriously injure the quality of 
the paper, a still more powerful machine has been in- 


troduced, called the " devil," which is constructed on the 
same principie as the willow, but revolves at a lower 
speed. The revolving axle of this machine is conical, and 
is provided with teeth, arranged in a spiral form. The 
case in which it rotates is fed continuously, instead of 
intermittently ; and although it f acilitates the subsequect 
treatment of the fibre, it is said to be wasteful, while also 
consuming a considerable amount of power. A machine, 
or " devil," for cleaning rags or half stuff is manufactured 
by Messrs. Donkin and Co., a representation of which 
is shovvn in Fig. 8. 


TREATMENT OF RAGS {continúen). 

Boiling Rags. — Bertrams' Rag Boiler. — Donkin's Rag Boiler. — "Washing 
and Breaking. — Bertrams' Rag Engine. — Bentley and Jackson's Rag 
Engine. — Draining. — Torrance's Drainer. 

Boiling Rags. — To remove greasy matters, and also to 
dissolve out the cementing substances f rom the stems oí 
flax and shell of the cotton, the rags are next boiled in a 
solution of caustic soda, caustic lime, or a mixture of car- 
bonate of soda and lime. The boiling has also the effeet 
of loosening the dirt contained in the rags, whereby the 
colour of the material is greatly improved, while at the 
same time it is rendered more susceptible to the action of 
the bleaching agent. Strong linen rags will sometimes 
lose from one-third to one-fifth of their weight by the 
process of boiling. The vessels for boiling rags are of 
various construction, and have been the subject of nume- 
rous ingenious patents. These boilers are either cylin- 
drical or spherical, and are also stationary or rotary — the 
latter form being devised for the purpose of keeping the 
caustic alkali solution f reely diffused throughout the mass 
of fibre during the boiling. 

Bertrams' Rag Boiler.— Án illustration of a spherical 
boiler, as manufactured by Bertrams, Limited, of Edin- 
burgh, is given in Fig. 9. The shell of this boiler is 
made from malleable iron, is 8 feet in diameter and 
9 feet deep. The boiler is constructed on what is termed 
the "vomiting" principie, by which a free circulation of 
the alkaline liquor is constantly maintained. These boilers 
are made to withstand any pressure of steam, but the size 


given is usually worked at from 3o to 45 lbs. pressure, 
and carries about 30 cwt. of dry esparto. 

Fig. 9. 

Donkin's Rag Boiler. — The spherical boiler of Messrs. 
Bryan Donkin and Co. is shown in Fig. 10. Being of 
a spherical form, it is twice as strong as a cylindrical 
boiler of the same diameter and thickness. The plates 
used are, notwithstanding, of the usual substance, thus 
rendering it perfectly safe, durable, and suitable for high- 
pressure steam. The spherical shape also allows the rags 
to fall out by themselves when the boiler is revolving 
with the cover off. Within the boiler are strainers to 
carry off the dirt, and lif ters to agitate the rags during 
the process of either boiling or washing. To avoid 
cement, or even lead joints, the gudgeons and the boiler 
are turned true in the la the to fit each other, the joints 
being simply made with red lead. These boilers are 
usually about 8 feet in diarneter, and are capable of boil- 
ing from 20 cwt. to 25 cwt. of rags. The idea of giving 
niotion to the boiler, so as to insure a perfect mixture 
of the rags and the caustic liquor, is of American origin, 
and was íirst introduced into this country by Messrs. 



Bryan Donkin and Co. It is usual to fix the boiler so 
that it can be fed with rags through a trap in the floor 
above, while the boiler is in a vertical position and tbe lid 
removed. Tbe trunnions are bollovv, to admit tbe intro- 
duction of steam, alkaline ley, or water, and its rotary 

Fig. 10. 

motion, which is about tbree times in two minutes, is given 
by the gearing on the left of the illustration. 

The alkalies used for boiling rags are either caustic 
soda, soda ash, slaked lime, made into a cream and sif ted, 
or a mixture of slaked lime and carbonate of soda. A 
description of the preparation of caustic soda ley will be 


found in anotlier chapter. It has been customary at 
most of the larger paper-mills to purchase their caustic 
soda direct frora the alkali manufacturers, wlio supply 
it in a solid form enclosed in iron drums, hermetically 
closed, which are broken and the contents removed 
and dissolved when required for use. As to the strength 
of caustic soda liquor to be used for boiling rags, this 
is regulated according to the nature and condition of 
the material, and the quality of the paper it is intended 
for (see p. 34). For the finest papers the caustic soda 
should be perfectly puré, and as there are various grades 
of this chemical substance sold by the alkali makers, 
only the purer qualities are used for the better kinds 
of paper. The proportion of caustic soda per ewt. of 
rags varíes to the extent of from 5 to 10 per cent, of 
the former to each cwt. of the latter, the coarser mate- 
rials, of course, requiring more alkali than those of finer 
quality. In cases where rags are boiled in an open 
boiler — as was formerly the case — 'emuch larger propor- 
tion of caustic soda would be required than when the 
boiling is conducted under high pressures, as is now very 
generally the custom. In boiling the finer qualities of 
rags, less pressure of steam is required than for the coarser 
qualities, and the heat being proportionately lower, there 
is less destruction of the fibre. Some paper-makers prefer 
to boil the rags with caustic lime only, in which case the 
lime, after being slaked in the usual way, is mixed with 
water until it attains a milky consistence, when it is 
passed through a sieve to sepárate any solid partióles 
which may be present. About the same percentage of 
lime may be used as in the former case. 

When a mixture of lime and carbonate of soda is used, a 
method much adopted on the Continent, the lime should be 
well screened from lumps bef ore being mixed with the soda. 
The usual method of preparing this mixture is as f ol- 
io ws : — A woodentank, 15 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 4 feet. 
deep is divided into three compartments, each of which 
has a false bottom perforated with ^-inch holes to keep 


back lumps, stones, pieces of coal, etc., which frequently 
abound in the lime. The fresh lime is put into the first 
compartment, where it is slaked with water in the usual 
way ; the resulting powder is then put into the next com- 
partment together with sufficient water, where it is agitated 
until converted into what is technically termed " milk of 
lime." In the partition which separates the second from 
the third división is a movable sluice, through which the 
milk of lime flows into the third compartment ; in this is 
fitted a revolving drum, similar to the drum-washer of 
the breaking-engine, through which the milk of lime 
which flows from the sluice becomes strained, and is lifted 
in the same way as water is lifted by the drum-washer of 
the breaking-engine, and is thence discharged through a 
pipe into the rag boilers ; an additional straining can be 
efíected by placing a fine wire strainer over the mouth of 
this pipe leading to the boiler, which will prevent objec- 
tionable partióles from entering the boiler. Each com- 
partment is provided with a large waste pipe, through 
which, by the aid of a suflicient supply of water, all im- 
purities which have been rejected by the drum are carried 
away. The soda solution is prepared by dissolving the 
required proportion in water, and the resulting liquor, 
after careful straining, is introduced into the boiler to 
which the charge of rags has been given ; the head of the 
boiler is then fixed in its position and steam turned on, 
until a pressure of about 20 to 30 lbs. to the square inch 
is attained, and the boiling kept up for two to six hours, 
according to the quality of the rags. By the Continental 
system of boiling rags, for No. 1 stufís, 216 lbs. of lime 
and 114 lbs., of 48 per cent., soda ash are used for every 
4,000 lbs. of rags ; for Nos. 3 and 5 stufís, 324 lbs. of 
lime and 152 lbs. of soda ash are used ; and for No. 4 
stufí 378 lbs. of lime and 190 lbs. of soda ash, and the 
boiling in each case is kept up for twelve hours, under a 
pressure of 30 lbs., the operation being conducted in 
boilers which revolve horizontally. 

In boiling the finest qualities of rags, it is considered 



preferable to boil with lime alone, which is believed to be 
less injurious to delicate fibres than caustic soda. Dunbar * 
gives the f ollowing proportions of 70 per cent, caustic soda 
per cwt. of rags : — 

s. p. f. f. f. is boiled with lime alone, then washed in 
tbe boiler, and again boiled with 2 per cent, of soda asb. 

S. P. F. F. ÍS bo 
S. P. F 


1. F. X. 
C. L. F. X. 
C. C. L. F. X. 

F. F. 

led w 

th 12 lbs. of (70 per cent.) caustic soda per cwt. 



Tbese are all boiled at a pressure of from 20 to 25 lbs. for 
10 bours, in stationary boiler s witbout vomit, and also in 
boilers revolving borizontally. In some milis, wbere tbe 
best qualities of paper are made, iron boilers are objected 
to, as small partióles of oxide of iron are apt to become 
dislodged from tbe interior of tbe boiler, and produce dis- 
colouration of tbe paper. In sucb cases wooden vats, 
with mechanical stirrers, are employed ; sometimes a 
jacketed boiler is used. 

Washing and Breaking. — The removal of the dirty 
water resulting from the boiling is effected in the washing 
and breaking engine, or " rag engine," as it is commonly 
called, which is constructed on the same principie as the 
beating engine, but is provided with an extra drum, called 
the drum-icasher, which, being covered with wire gauze, 
allows the washing waters to escape without permitting 
the fibrous stuff to pass through. The rag engine, having 
been invented by a Dutchman, acquired, and still retains, 
the ñame of the Hollander, and although it has been con- 
siderably improved upon, its principie is still retained in 
the modern engines, of which there are many different 
forms. The ordinaryrag engine, Figs. 11 and 12, consists 

* "Practical Paper Maker," by James Dunbar. Mackenzie and 
Storrie, Leith, 1887. 



of a cast-iron trough A, about 10 feet long, 4^ feet wide, and 
2| feet deep, and rounded at tlie ends, and is firmly bolted 
to a wooden foundation. It is provided with a partition 
termed the midfeather b, of such a length as to have the 
trough of unifomi width round it. A cylinder, or roll, c, 
furnished with a series of steel knives, rotates in one of 
the divisions formed by the midfeather, and the floor of 
the trough in this división is iaclined in such a manner as 

Figs. 11 and 12. 

to cause the pulp, as it travels, to pass under the roll. 
Beneath the roll is the bed-plate, which is fitted with a 
series of steel knives e c similar to those on the exterior of 
the roll. The distance between the knives of the roll and 
the bed-plate is regulated by levelling screws, which are so 
adj usted that both ends of the roll are raised at the same 
time, which is a great improvement upon the older types 
of breaking engines in which only one end of the roll was 
raised, whereby the knives became unequally worn. By 


the present method of regulating the distance between the 
respective sets of knives, any required degree of fineness 
can be given to the fibrous substances treated. The roll 
is generally caused to rotate at a speed of about 230 
revolutions per minute, causing tbe water and rags to cir- 
cuíate in tbe engine and to be constantly under tne action 
of tbe knives. In tbe otber división f f of tbe trougb 
is tbe drum-wasber h, which, being covered with fine 
gauze wire, allows tbe water to enter, but keeps back tbe 
fibrous material. Tbe ends of tbe drum are f ormed of 
two discs of wood, generally mahogany, upon wbicb tbe 
coarse gauze is fastened as a backing, and tbis is covered 
witb tbe fine wire gauze. Tbe interior of tbe drum is 
«oraetimes furnisbed witb a series of buckets, wbicb con- 
d uct tbe water to a trougb in tbe axis of tbe drum, by 
wbich it is led away. Tbis is also accomplisbed by dividing 
tbe interior of tbe cylinder into compartments by means 
of a partition. Tbe drum-wasber is so arranged tbat it 
can be wbolly raised out of tbe trougb, wbicb is necessary 
in certain parts of tbe operation, wben tbe removal of tbe 
liquid is not required ; or it can be partially raised, or 
otberwise, according to requirement. Tbe floor of tbe 
compartment containing tbe roll c is inclined at d, so as 
to cause tbe pulp to pass directly under tbe roll, and at 
r>' is tbe backfatt, over wbicb tbe pulp travels to tbe oppo- 
site side of tbe midfeatber. 

In working tbe rag engine, it is first partly filled 
witb water, and tben set in motion ; tbe boiled stuff is 
tben gradually put in, and a constant supply of clean 
water is run in from a cistern provided witb means of 
preventing sand or otber impurities from finding tbeir 
way into tbe engine. It is of tbe utmost importance tbat 
tbe water sbould be abundant and of good quality, more 
especially as tbe material (rags) is mostly required for 
making tbe finer qualities of paper. In tbis respect tbe 
county of Kent and a few otber localities on tbe cbalk 
formation are considered specially suitable for tbis par- 
ticular manufacture. 



With respect to the driving of the engines, this was 
formerly effected by what is called toothed geariny, but 
cog-wheels were afterwards replaced by iron spur-wheel 
gearing, which enabled manufacturers to drive four or 
more engines from one source of power, by continuing the 
line of shafting and spur-wheels; but even with. small 
rolls the wear and tear on this system was considerable, 
while i t ivas quite inadequate to the driving of a number of 
lar ge rolls of 30 inches in diameter, such as are now used. 
The introduction of belt-gearing, by Messrs. Gr. and "W. 
Bertram, proved to be a great improvement on the older 
system, and it is found that the rags are broken not only 
more uniformly, but in less time, as the rolls work more 
steadily on the plates than with any system of wheel- 
gearing, while the various working parts of the engine 
last longer than when subjected to the vibrating action of 

Bertrams' Rag Engine. — This engine, of which a 
drawing is shown in Fig. 13, may be used either as a 

Fig. 13. 

washing and breaking engine, potcher, or beater. It is 
provided with double lifting gear, and has " all sweeps, 
curves, and angles " of the most improved design to save 



lodgments and ensure steady and thorough travelling of 
the pulp. Tlie drmn-washer is shown lifted by rack and 
pinion and worm gear, and empties down the midfeather 
direct to mouthpiece. The emptying can be done by 
spout and pipe, or by a chamber cast on the engine, down 
back or front side, as well as through the midfeather ; 
but it is not advisable that it should be emptied down the 
midfeather if the rag engine is to be nsed as a beater. 

Bentley and Jackson's Rag Engine. — This form of 
engine is shown in Fig. 14. The trough is of cast-iron, 
and made whole, and the engine can be obtained of any 

Fig. 14. 

required dimensions. The trough is provided with a sand- 
well, cast-iron grate, and cock in front of the roll, and a 
sand-well, cast-iron grate, and brass valve on the back of 
the midfeather, a brass let-off valve and a brass waste- 
water valve. The bottom of the trough is " dished," to 
prevent the stuff f rom lodging. There are two movable 
bridge trees, fitted with pedestals and brass steps, and 
wrought-iron lifting links and screws, worm-wheels, 
worms, cross-shaft and hand-wheel for simultaneously 
lifting the roll on both sides. The roll is covered by a 
polished pitch-pine cover. The drum-washer may have 
either iron or wooden ends, has strong copper brackets, 
and is covered with brass backing and covering wires, 
mounted on a wrought-iron shaft, and carried by cast- 


íron stands, fitted with improvecl lifting gear, driving- 
wheels, and pulley. 

When the engine is set in motion by the revolving 
shaft or spindle, the combined action of the knives of the 
roll and bed-plate causes the rags, which circuíate in the 
water, to be gradually cut into sniall fragmenta, and the 
operation is kept up until the rags are converted into what 
is techüically termed half-stuff. While this process is 
going on, fresh water is constantly supplied by a pipe at 
the end of the washing- en ajine ; and when it is found that 
nothing but clear water escapes from the drum-washer, 
this is raised, and the spindle bearing the roll is lowered, so 
as to bring the respective knives closer together, to enable 
theni to cut the reduced material still finer. 

Draining. — When the material is sufficiently brolien, as 
it is termed, the engine is then emptied by means of its 
valves, and the contents run into large vats or drainers, 
furnished with perforated zinc floors, in which it is 
allowed to drain thoroughly ; and in order to remove the 
water more efíectually, the pulp is afterwards pressed, 
either by an extractor or a centrifugal drainer, which 
dries it sufficiently for gas-bleaching, or for treatment in 
the potcher or poacher. This is a larger engine than the 
washer, and instead of the cylinder and bars, has a hollow 
drum which carries on its periphery a number of cast- 
iron paddles, which thoroughly agitate the pulp, and thus 
render it more susceptible of being freely and unifornily 
acted upon by the bleaching agent. The drum-washer of 
this engine should have a finer wire than is used for the 

Torrance's Drainer. — This machine, which has been 
extensively used, is manufactured by Messrs. J. Bertram 
and Son, of Edinburgh. It consists of a perforated cylin- 
drical box, enclosed in a fixed case, which revolves at 
about two hundred and fifty revolutions per minute. The 
machine is capable of treating about 4 cwt. of pulp per 



Preliminary Treatment.— Picking.— Willowing Esparto. — Boiling Es- 
parto. — Sinclair's Esparto Boiler. — Eoeckner's Boiler. — Mallary's 
Process. — CarboneU's Process.— Washing Boiled Esparto. — Young's 
Process. — Bleaching the Esparto. 

Preliminary Treatment : Picking. — Esparto is im- 
ported in bales or trusses, tightly eompressed by bydraulic 
presses, and bound with twisted bands of the same 
material, much in the same manner as hay, except that 
which comes from Tripoli, which is bound with iron 
bands. The bands being cut, the loosened material is 
then spread out upon tables, partly covered with iron, 
or galvanised-iron, netting, to allow earthy matter or sand 
to pass through to a receptacle beneath. Here it is care- 
fully picked by women and girls, who remove all roots, 
other kinds of grass, weeds, and heather. The material 
thus cleansed from impurities is transí erred to the boiling- 
room. This careful preliminary treatment has been 
found necessary, since pieces of root and other vegetable 
matters which may be present are Hable to resist the action 
of the bleaching liquor to a greater extent than the grass 
itself, and therefore produce specks, or " sheave " as they 
are termed at the mili, in the manufactured paper. 

At some milis, however, as at the Horton Kirby Mills 
of Messrs. Spalding and Hodge, at South Darenth, for 
example, the cleaning of esparto is admirably effected by 
means of a willow, or esparto-cleaner, constructed by 
Messrs. Masson, Scott, and Bertram, which entirely 
supersedes the system of hand-picking. Having recently 
visited the mili referred to, we were enabled, through the 


courtesy of Mr. Sydney Spalding, to witness the action of 
this ,willow, which appeared to perforan its f unctions with 
perfect uniforniity, and to olean the grass most effectually. 
The rationale of the operation of willowing esparto may 
be thus described : — 

Willowing Esparto. — A bale of the grass is nnbound 
at a short distance from the machine, and the grass, 
which js in the form of small bundles or sheaves, tied 
with bands of the same material, is thrown by a woman 
on to a table or platform placed by the side of the 
willow, and a second woman, standing near the hopper 
of the machine, takes the bnndles, a few at a time, and 
drops them into the hopper. The machine being in 
motion, in a few moments the grass, freed from its 
bands and dirty matters, appears in a perfectly loóse con- 
dition at the wider end of the drum, and passes upward 
along a travelling-table to a room above, in the floor of 
which are the man-holes of a series of esparto boilers. 
During the passage of the loosened fibre, women standing 
on steps or platf orms at the sides of the travelling-table are 
enabled to examine the material, and to remo ve any objec- 
tionable matters that may be present. Beneath the drum 
of the machine is a pipe, through which the dust and 
dirty matters are drawn away by means of a f an. 

Boiling Esparto. — Intheboiling-room atthe millreferred 
to is a series of vertical stationary boilers, each about twenty 
feet high, and capable of holding about three tons of grass. 
The man-holes of these boilers pass through the floor of a 
room above, being nearly level with it, into which the 
cleaned esparto is conveyed, as described, by the travelling- 
table of the willowing machine. In this room is a series 
of compartments in which the willowed esparto is stored 
until required for boiling, when it is fed into the boilers 
by means of two-pronged forks provided for the purpose. 
The boiler being partially charged with caustic ley at 14° 
Twad., the esparto is introduced, and steam also, by which 
the esparto becomes sof tened, and thus a larger quantity 
of the fibre can be charged into the vessel. When the 



full charge of ley and esparto have been introduced the 
head of the boiler is securely fixed by means of its bolts, 
and steam then turned on until a pressure of about 20 lbs. 
to the square inch has been reached, which pressure is 
kept up for about three hours, when the steam is shut off 
and the blovv-off tap opened. When the steain is blown 

Fig. 15. 

off, the spent liquor is run off, and hot water then run 
into the boiler, steam again turned on, and the boiling 
kept up for about twenty minutes to half an hour, at the 
end of which time the steam is shut off and the blow-pipe 
opened. As soon as the steam has blown off, the washing 
water is run off by the bottom pipe, and the grass allowed 



to drain as thoroughly as possible. A door at the lower 
end of tlie boiler is then opened, and the grass emptied 
into trucks and conveyed to the washing-engines. 

Sinclair's Esparto Boiler. — Another form of boiler, 
known as Sinclair's boiler, of the vertical cylindrical type, 
is shown in Figs. 15 and 16. It is constructed on what is 
termed the " vomiting " principie, but without the central 
vomitttig-pipes generally used, and is fitted with one or 

Kg. 16. 

more vomiting-pipes cióse to the side, two diametrically 
opposite pipes being nsed by pref erence. Steam jet pipes, 
with upwardly-directed nozzles, are fitted into the vomit- 
ing-pipes at points a little above the bends, between the 
vertical and horizontal parts. The liquid or ley thrown 
np the vomiting-pipes by the action of the steam is deli- 
vered from the upper ends of the pipes over a diaphragm 
or píate fixed near the top of the boiler, and the liquid is 


retained at a certain depth on the diaphragm by a number 
of small tubes fixed in it, and the liquid becomes well 
heated by tbe steam bef ore overflowing down the tubes, 
which tubes also serve to distribute it uniíormly over tlie 
fibrous materials iu tbe boiler. A casing is f ormed at the 
bottom of the boiler, and in some cases extended more or 
less up the sides, and is supplied with steam, which should 
be superheated, or of high pressure. With this arrange- 
ment the heat in the boiler is maintained without the 
excessive condensation of steam and consequent dilution 
and weakening of the liquors which occurs in ordinary 
boilers. Figs. 15 and 16 are horizontal and vertical sec- 
tions of one form of this boiler. The boiler is made with 
a vertical cylindrical shell, 1 ; with a nat top, 2 ; and flat 
bottom, 3 ; and there is an inner or second bottom, 4 ; the 
space between it and the bottom, 3, being for steam to 
assist in heating the contents of the boiler. At a little 
distance above the inner bottom, 4, there is the usual per- 
forated horizontal diaphragm, 5, down through which the 
liquid or ley drains from the fibre. Two diametrically 
opposite vertical vomiting-pipes, 6, are formed by the 
attachment of curved plates to the cylindrical shell, 1, and 
these vomiting-pipes, 6, have their upper ends above a 
horizontal diaphragm, 7, attached by stays to the boiler 
top, 2. This diaphragm is perforated, and short tubes, 8, 
are fixed in the perforations so as to project upwards, by 
which arrangement the liquid, rising up the vomiting- 
pipes, 6, lies on the diaphragm to the depth of the tubes, 8, 
and overnows down through them all equally, so as to be 
uniformly distributed over the materials in the boiler. 
Steam jet nozzles, 9, are fitted in the lower parts of the 
vomiting-pipes, being supplied with steam by pipes, 10, 
from one of which a branch, 11, supplies steam to the 
double bottom, 3, 4. The steam jets cause the liquid to 
be drawn from under the perforated diaphragm, 5, and 
thrown up the pipes, 6, whereby a constant circulation of 
the liquid through the fibre is maintained, The liquors 
are drawn off by the pipe, 15. In another form of boiler 


Mr. Sinclair employs vomit-pipes formed of thin steel 
plates riveted to opposite sides of the boiler, and the liquid 
which drains through the perforated double bottom is 
forced upward through the vomit-pipes to the perforated 
plates above, through which it distributes over the mate- 
rial in fine jets. The boiler is capable of holding from 
2 to 3 tons of esparto, and under a pressure of from 40 to 
50 lbsr the boiling occupies about two hours. 

Roeckner's Boiler. — This boiler, of which an illustra- 
tion of two in series is given in Fig. 17, has been exten» 

Fiff. 17. 

sively adopted by paper manufacturers. It will be noticed 
that the vomit-pipe a is placed outside the boiler, and the 
steam enters at the cock b, forcing the liquor up the 
vomit-pipe a and distributing it over the esparto. A 
pipe c is used for heating the liquor by means of waste 
steam at the commencement of the operation. The grass 
is fed into the boiler at the opening d. At e e are gauges 
for showing the height of the liquor in the boiler. fpf 
are pipes for the supply of steam, strong ley, and water, 
and the door g is for the discharge of the boiled grass. 
Each boiler is capable of holding 3 tons of esparto, and 
the boiling is completed in about two and a half hours, at 


a pressure of from 35 to 40 lbs. per square inch. It is 
said that the boiler efíects a saving both in time and the 
amount of soda used. 

Mallary's Process. — By this process the inventor says 
that he obtains the fibre in greater length, and gets rid of 
the givmmy and resinous matters in a more economical 
way than by the present system. The materials used 
form a species of soap, with which and with the addition 
of water, the esparto is boüed. To carry out his process, 
he places in a boiler a suitable quantity of water, to which 
caustic soda, or a ley of the required strength to suit the 
nature of the fibre, is added ; magnesite, or carbonate of 
magnesia, in the proportion of about 2 per. cent, of the 
fibrous material, or a solution of sulphate of magnesia, is 
then added and mixed with the ley. He next adds " an 
improved saponaceous compound " to produce the required 
result, and when the boiling is completed, the stuff is 
treated as ordinary stock, to be applied for paper-making 
or other uses. The proportions are as folio ws : — 2 gallón s 
of petroleum or its products, 1 gallón of mustard oil, 10 to 
15 lbs. of caustic soda, and 1 per cent, of boracic acid. 
These are placed in a copper and heated for 1 to 2 hours, 
until properly saponified. From 3 to 6 gallons of the 
" saponaceous compound " are added to the ley and mag- 
nesite, previously placed in the boiler with the fibre, and 
the boiling is kept up for the usual length of time, when 
the fibre will be found " beautifully soft, and the greater 
portion of the gum, silica, and resinous matters removed, 
or so softened as to be no hindrance to the perfect separa- 
tion of the fibres, whilst the strength, silkiness, and soft- 
ness are preserved in all their natural integrity." Con- 
sidering that caustic soda ley " of the required strength " 
forms an essential part of this process, we should imagine 
that the auxiliarles mentioned would scarcely be necessary. 

Carbonell's Process. — In this process, devised by M. 
Carbonell, of Paris, 200 lbs. of raw esparto are placed in a 
wooden vat furnished with a perf orated steam-pipe, 20 lbs. 
of soda and 30 lbs. of quicklime being mixed with it : 


the vat is then supplied with cold water until the esparto 
is completely covered. Steam is then turned on, and the 
niaterials boiled for 4 hours. The spent liquor is then 
drained off, and the esparto submitted to hydraulic pres- 
sure. It is afterwards washed and broken in a rag engine, 
and in about 15 minutes is reduced to half-stuff. 20 Ibs. 
of chloride of lime dissolved in water are then introduced, 
and tke cylinder kept in motion as usual. In another 
vessel, lined with lead, 1¿ Ib. of sulphuric acid is dissolved 
in 3 lbs. of water, and this gradually added to the pulp, 
which immediately assumes a reddish colour ; but in the 
course of about three quarters of an hour it becomes 
perfectly white, when the pulp is ready for the paper- 

In the boiling of esparto, several important points have 
to be considered. The kind of esparto to be treated is the 
first consideration, since this grass differs materially in 
character in the different countries from which it is im- 
ported. Spanish esparto is considered the best for paper- 
making, as it is stronger in fibre and yields a whiter pulp 
than other varieties. Of the African espartos there are 
several varieties, which are known respectively as Oran, 
Trípoli, Sfax, Grabes, and Susa. Of these, the first-named 
(Algerian esparto) is held in highest estimation amongst 
paper-makers, since it more closely resembles Spanish 
esparto than the other varieties, though not so hard and 
stiff as the latter. These grasses usually have a length of 
about 10 to 12 inches. Trípoli esparto has an entirely 
different growth, being sometimes as long as 2¿ or 3 feet, 
and proportionately stouter, and is also softer than Oran 
esparto, which is not so hard as the Spanish variety. 
Trípoli esparto does not yield a strong paper by itself, but 
in conjunction with Oran esparto gives more favourable 
results. Sfax and Grabes espartos have a closer resem- 
blance to Oran than Trípoli, but are not so strong as 
Oran, being green and spongy, and not so dry as the 
latter variety. Susa esparto of good quality is said to 
equal Oran, but not to yield so high a percentage of fibre. 


The next important consideration is to determine the 
percentage of caustic alkali which should be used per 
hundredweight of the particular variety of esparto to be 
treated, and we cannot do better than give the f ollowing 
proportions recommended by Mr. Dunbar. 

Fine Spanish . 18 to 20 lbs. of 70 per cent, caustic soda per cwt. 
Médium Spanish. 16 to 18 ,, ,, 

Fine Oran . 


Médium Oran 

. 16 to 17 

Susa . . . 


Tripoli . . 

. 19 to 20 

Sfax . . . 

. 20 to 21 

Mr. Dunbar says that the above figures " insure a first- 
class boil, with the steam pressure of 25 lbs. and not 
exceeding 30 lbs., but are liable to alteration according 
to circumstances — such as the form of boilers, quality of 
the water for boiling purposes, and steam facilities, which 
ought at all times to be steady and uniform to get the 
absolute regularity required." 

Respecting the strength of caustic ley used for boiling 
esparto, as indicated by Twaddell's hydrometer, this 
appears to range from 7 o to 15°, some preferring to boil 
with stronger liquors than others. The time occupied in 
boiling also varíes at difíerent milis, and depends greatly 
upon the character of the boiler used. We are informed 
that a Sinclair boiler will turn out, on an average, three 
boils in twenty-four hours, including filling, boiling, dis- 
charging, &c, the boiling occupying about four hours for 
each batch of grass. 

The boiling being completed, the liquor is run off into 
tanks, to be afterwards treated for the recovery of the 
soda, and the esparto is then subjected to a second boiling 
with water only for about 20 minutes. The liquor from 
the second boiling is sometimes thrown away, even when 
the soda from the íirst liquor is recovered ; but a more 
economical method is to use this liquor, in lieu of water, 
strengthened with soda for a first boiling ; or to mix it 
with the first liquors and evapórate the whole together. 



The second boiling being finished, the steam is turned off, 
and water then run in and steam again turned on f or a 
short time, and the water then run off and the esparto 
allowed to drain thoroughly. The boiled grass is then 
discharged into trucks which convey it to the washing 

The liquor resulting from the boiling of esparto, which 
is of a- dark brown colour, contains nearly all the soda 
originally used, but it also contains silicious, resinous, and 
other vegetable matters which it has dissolved out of the 
grass, the silica taking the form of silicate of soda. The 
esparto liquor, which was formerly allowed to run to 
waste, polluting our rivers to a serious extent, is now 
treated by several ingenious methods for the recovery of 
the soda with considerable advantage alike to the manu- 
facturer and the public. The process consists essentially 
in boiling down the liquor to dryness, and incinerating 
the residue. During the process of incineration the car- 
bonaceous matter extracted from the grass is converted 
into carbonic acid, which, combining with the soda, re- 
converts it into carbonate of soda, which is afterwards 
causticised with lime in the usual way, and the caustic 
soda thus obtained is again used in the boiling of esparto. 
Although one or other of the "recovery" processes is 
adopted at a good many of our paper-mills, the recovery 
of the soda is by no means universal as yet, but the time 
will doubtless soon arrive when the economical advan- 
tages of the process will be fully recognised. Indeed, we 
know it to be the fact that some manufacturers are 
watching, with keen interest, the progress of some of the 
newer systems of soda recovery, with the full intention 
eventually of adopting one or other of them. 

Washing Boiled Esparto. — This operation is usually 
performed in engines similar to those used in washing 
rags, but in some milis the boiled grass is washed in a 
series of tanks, so arranged that water flows in at one 
end of the series, thence passing in succession through 
each batch of grass in the other tanks, and finally issues 



at the fartliest end of the series as a very concentrated 
liquor. By this arrangement there is great economy of 
water, while at the same time no loss of fibre occurs. 
The concentrated washing liquors thus obtained may be 
evaporated, and the alkali recovered, which would be an 
undoubted saving, since these liquors obtained in the 
ordinary way by washiag in the boilers are generally 
run of£ as waste. The engines used for washing esparto 
and converting it into half-stuff are generally of large 
size, and capable of treating a ton of boiled esparto. In 
this engine, however, there is no bed-plate, as the action 
of the roll alone is sufficient to reduce the boiled and 
sof tened esparto to half-stuff. A drum-washer is also 
furnished to the engine, which carries off the dirty wash- 
ing water, while an equivalent proportion of clean water 
is kept constantly running into the engine from an 
elbowed pipe at its end. In charging the washing-engine, 
it is first about three parts filled with water, when the 
washing cylinder is lowered, and the esparto is then put 
in, care being taken not to introduce more of the material 
than will work f reely under the action of the roll ; if the 
mass be too stiff, portions of the material may be imper- 
fectly washed. While the washing is in progress, the 
workman, armed with a wooden paddle, constantly stirs 
the esparto, clearing it away from the sides of the engine, 
so that none of the material may escape a perf ect washing. 
At the bottom of the engine is a " sand-trap," covered 
with perf orated zinc, through which any sand or other 
solid partióles which may be present escape. When the 
washing is complete, the fresh water supply is shut off, 
and the drum-washer allowed to run until enough water 
has been removed to make room for the bleaching liquor. 

Young's Process. — By this process the boiled and 
strained esparto is passed through elastic covered rollers, 
so adjusted as to split up and squeeze out the dissolved 
matters or liquid from the fibres, thus leaving them clean 
and open for the access of the bleaching liquor. 

Bleaching the Esparto. — It is usual to bleach esparto 


in the washing engine, f or which purpose a tank of bleach- 
ing liquor oí the required strength (about 6 o T. for 
Spanish) is placed cióse to the engine, which is provided 
with a pipe leading to the engine and another pipe pro- 
ceeding f rom the tank in which. the bleaching liquor is 
stored. The supply tank is furnished inside with a gauge, 
divided into inches — each inch representing so many 
galloüs of liquor — by means of which the workman is 
enabled to regúlate the quantity of bleaching liquor he is 
instructed by the nianager or foreman to introduce into 
the engine. About half an hour after the bleach has 
become well incorporated with the fibre, sulphuric acid 
in the proportion of six ounces of the acid (which must be 
well diluted with water) to each hundredweight of the 
fibre. The dilute acid should be added gradually, and 
the proportions given must not be exceeded. The bleach- 
ing being completed, the half-stuff is next treated in a 
machine termed the presse-páte, which not only cleanses 
the material from sand and dirt, but also separates all 
knots and other imperfections from the fibre in a most 
effectual and economical manner. Indeed, we were much 
struck with the excellent working of this machine at 
Messrs. Spalding and Hodge's mili, at South Darenth, 
and the remarkably fine quality of the finished pulp 
obtained through its agency. The presse-páte was 
formerly used in the preparation of pulp from straw, but 
its advantages in the treatment of esparto are now fully 
recognised. The apparatus and method of working it 
may be thus briefly described : — 

The machine is on the principie of the wet end of a 
paper machine, and consists of several stone chests for 
holding the bleached half-stuff, in which are fitted agita- 
tors to keep the stuff in suitable condition. From these 
chests the stuff is pumped into a mixing box, and from 
thence over a series of sand traps made of wood, and with 
slips of wood fixed in the bottom, in which any sand 
present is retained. The stuff then passes into a series of 
strainers, which, while allowing the clean fibre to pass 


through, retain ali impurities, such as knots, &c, and the 
clean stufí is allowed to flow on to the wire-cloth in such a 
quantity as to form a thick web of pulp. A greater 
portion of the water escapes through the wire-cloth, but a 
further portion is removed by the passage of the pulp 
across two vacuum boxes, connected with four powerful 
vacuum pumps, which renders the half-stuff sufficiently 
dry to handle ; but to render it still more so, it now passes 
between couch rolls, and is either run into webs, or, as 
is sometimes the case, it is discharged into boxes, the 
web of pulp thus treated being about an inch in thick- 


Chemical Processes. — Watt and Burgess's Process. — Sinclair's Process.— 
Keegan's Process. — American "Wood Pulp System. — Aussedat's Pro- 
cess. — Acid Treatment of Wood. — Pictet and Brélaz's Process. — 
Barre and Blondel's Process. — Poncharac's Process. — Young and 
Pettigrew's Process. — Fridet and Matussiére's Process. 

The advantages of wood fibre as a paper material have 
been fully recognised in the United States and in many 
Continental countries, but more especially in Norway, 
Sweden, and Germany, from whence large quantities of 
wood pulp are imported into tbis country. Tbere is no 
doubt that our home manufacturers have recently paid 
much attention to tbis material, and it is bighly probable 
that wood, as an inexhaustible source of useful fibre, will 
at no distant date bold a foremost rank. Indeed, the very 
numerous processes which have been patented since the 
Watt process was first made known, indicate that from this 
unlimited source of fibre the requirements of the paper- 
maker may be to a large extent satisfied, provided, of 
course, that the processes for reducing the various suitable 
woods to the condition of pulp can be economically and 
satisfactorily effected. The great attention which this 
material has received at the hands of the experimentalist 
and chemist — the terms not being always synonymous — 
shows that the field is considered an important one, as in- 
deed it is, and if successfully explored will, it is to be 
hoped, yield commensurate advantages both to inventors 
and the trade. 

The object of the numerous inventors who have devised 
processes for the disintegration of wood fibre — that is, the 


separation of cellulose f rom the intercellular matters in 
which the fibres are enveloped — lias necessarily been to 
dissolye out the latter without injury to the cellulose itself, 
but it may be said that as yet the object has not been fully 
attained by either of the processes which have been intro- 
duced. To remove the cellnlar matter from the true fibre 
or cellulose, without degrading or sacrificing a portion of 
the latter, is by no means easy of accomplishment when 
practised 011 an extensive scale, and many processes which 
present apparent advantages in one direction are often 
Ibund to exhibit contrary results in another. The field, 
however, is still an open one, and human ingenuity may 
yet disco ver methods of separating wood libre from its 
surrounding tissues in a still more perfect manner than 

The various processes f or treating wood f or the extraction 
of its fibre have been classified into : (1) chemical processes ; 
and (2) mechanical processes. We will give precedence to 
the former in describing the various wood pulp processes, 
since the pulp produced by the latter, although extensively 
used, is chiefly employed, in combination with other pulps, 
f or common kinds of paper. In ref erence to this part of 
our subject Davis says : — " Experience has dictated certain 
improvements in some of the details of those earlier 
methods, by which so-called ' chemical wood pulp ' is 
manufactured very largely on the Continent of Europe. 
. . . . It is possible to obtain a pulp of good quality, suit- 
able f or some classes of paper, by boiling the chipped wood 
in caustic soda, but when it is desired to use the pulp so 
prepared for papers having a perfectly white colour it has 
been demonstrated in practice that the action of the caustic 
soda solution at the high temperature which is required 
develops results to a certain degree in weakening and 
browning the fibres, and during the past five years much 
labour has been expended in the endeavour to overeóme 
the objections named. The outeome of these efforts has 
been a number of patents, having for their object to pre- 
vent oxidation and subsequent weakening of the fibres." 


In several of these patents, to which we shall refer here- 
after, bisulphite of lime is employed as the agent to pre- 
vent oxidation and consequent degradation of the fibres, 
and in other processes bisulphite of magnesia has been 
used for the same purpose. Davis further remarks : 
" Although a common principie runs through all these 
methods of preparing cellulose from wood, they differ in 
detail, as in the construction of the digesters employed, 
methods of treating the wood stock before boiling it in 
the sulphnrous acid solution, and also as regards pressure, 
blowing ofE the sulphnrous acid gas, etc., but all these pro- 
cesses present a striking similarity to the method patented 
by Tilghmann in 1867." There can be no doubt that the 
action of caustic soda, under high pressures, is highly in- 
jurious both to the colour and strength of the fibres, and 
any process that will check this destructive action in a 
thoroughly practical way will efíect an important desi- 

I. Chemical Processes : Watt and Burgess's Process. — 
This process, which, with some modifications, is extensively 
worked in America, consists in boiling wood shavings, 
or other similar vegetable matter, in caustic soda ley, and 
then washing to remove the alkali ; the wood is next 
treated with chlorine gas, or an oxygeneous compound of 
chlorine, in a suitable vessel, and it is afterwards washecl 
to free it from the hydrochloric acid formed. It is now 
treated with a small quantity of caustic soda in solution, 
which instantly converts it into pulp, which only requires 
to be washed and bleached, and beaten for an hour and a 
half in the beating engine, when the pulp is ready for the 
machine. The wood-paper process as carried out in 
America has been described by Hofmann, from whose work* 
we have abridged the f ollowing : — 

The wood, mostly poplar, is brought to the works in 
5-feet lengths. The bark having been stripped off by 
hand, it is cut into ¿-inch slices by a cutter which consists 

* "Practical Treatisc on the Manufacture of Paper." By Cari líof 
mann, Philadelphia, 1873. 


of four steel knives, from 8 to 10 inclies wide by 12 to 15 
incbes long, wbicb are f astened in a sbgbtly inolined posi- 
tion to a solid cast-iron disc of about 5 to 7 f eet diameter, 
wbicb revolves at a bigb speed, cbopping tbe wood — wbicb 
is fed to tbe blades tbrougb a trougb — into tbin slices 
across tbe grain. Tbe trougb xnust be large enougb to 
receive tbe logs, usually 10 or 12 incbes tbick, and it is 
set at sucb an angle tbat tbe logs may slide down towards 
tbe revolving cutters ; tbis slanting position only assists 
tbe movement of tbe logs, wbile a pistón, wbicb is pro- 
pelled by a rack, pusbes tbem steadily forward until tbey 
are entirely cut up. Tbe pistón, orpusher, tben returns to 
its original position, f resb wood is put into tbe trougb, and 
tbe operation repeated. In tbis way many tons of wood 
can be cbopped up by one of tbese cutters in a day. Tbe 
sliced wood is conveyed by trucks to an elevator by wbicb 
it is boisted up two storeys to a floor from wbicb tbe boilers 
are filled. Tbe boilers are uprigbt cylinders, about 5 feet 
in diameter and 16 feet bigb, witb semi-spberical ends, 
provided inside witb straigbt perforated diaphragms, be- 
tween wbicb tbe cbips from one cord of wood are confined. 
A solution of caustic soda, at 12° B., is introduced witb 
tbe cbips, and fires are started in a furnace under- 
neatb. At otber works tbe boilers are beated by steam 
circulating tbrougb a jacket wbicb covers tbe bottom and 
sides of tbe boiler. 

Tbe boiling is continued for about six bours, wben tbe 
digestión is complete, and tbe contents of tbe boilers are 
emptied witb violence, under tbe pressure of at least 65 lbs. 
of steam, wbicb bad been maintained inside. A large slide 
valve is attacbed to tbe side of eacb boiler for tbis purpose 
cióse to tbe perfouated diapbragm, and connected by a 
capacious pipe witb a sbeet-iron cylinder of about 12 feet 
diameter and 10 feet bigb, wbicb receives tbe contents — 
pulp, liquor, and steam. Tbe object of tbese large cbam- 
bers — one of wbicb serves for two boilers — is to break tbe 
forcé of tbe discbarging mass. Tbe steam passes tbrougb 
a pipe on tbe top of eacb, and from tbence tbrougb a 


water reservoir, wbile tbe liquid containing the pulp flows 
througb a side opening and short pipe into movable boxes, 
or drainers, mounted on wheels, and each capable of hold- 
ing the contents of one boiler; these boxes are pusbed 
along a tramway up to tbe collecting cbambers, wbere tbe 
pulp is received. In a building 132 feet long and 75 feet 
wide, ten digesting boilers are arranged in one straigbt 
line, and parallel witb tbe boilers runs tbe main line of 
rails, side tracks extending from it to eacb of tbe cbambers, 
and a turn-table is supplied at every junction. By this 
arrangement tbe drainer waggons can be pusbed from tbe 
side tracks on to tbe main line, which leads to tbe washing- 
engines in an adjoining room. A system of drainage is 
establisbed below tbe tramways, by wbicb all tbe liquid 
wbich drains from tbe waggons is carried away and col- 
lected f or treatment by evaporation ; tbese carriers remain 
on tbe side tracks until tbe pulp is ready f or tbe wasbing- 

When tbe greater portion of tbe liquor has drained 
oñ, warm water is sprinkled over tbe pulp from a bose 
for tbe purpose of extracting all tbe liquid wbicb is suffi- 
ciently concentrated to repay tbe cost of evaporation — 
tbe most advantageous metbod of recovering tbe soda. 
Tbe contents of tbe waggons — from tbe same number of 
boilers — are tben placed in two wasbing-engines, eacb 
capable of bolding 1,000 lbs. of pulp. After being suffi- 
ciently worked in tbese engines tbe pulp is transferred to 
two stuff-cbests, and from tbence conveyed by pumps to 
two wet-macbines. Tbe screens (strainers) of tbe wet- 
macbines retain all impurities derived from knots, bark, 
and otber sources, and tbe pulp, or balf-stuff, obtained 
is perfectly olean and of a ligbt grey colour. Tbe pulp is 
bleacbed witb solution of bleacbing powder like rags, tben 
emptied into drainers and allowed to remain tberein witb 
tbe liquid for twenty-four to forty-eigbt bours, or long 
enougb to render tbe use of vitriol in tbe bleacbing un- 
necesaary. Tbe portion of tbe wbite pulp wbicb is to be 
worked up into paper in tbe adjoining mili is taken from 


the drainers into boxes running on tramways in the moist 
state, but all the pulp which has to be shipped to a dis- 
tance is made into rolls on a large cylinder paper-machine 
with many dryers. The object being merely to dry the 
pulp, a very heavy web can be obtained, since the water 
leaves this pulp very freely. The wood pulp thus obtained 
is perfectly clean, of a soft, white spongy fibre, and a 
greater portion of it is mixed with a small proportion of 
rag pulp and worked into book and fine printing papers. 
Sometimes the wood pulp is used alone or mixed with 
white paper shavings for book paper. The flbres are 
rather deficient in strength, but as a material for blotting 
paper they are said to be unsurpassed, while the wood 
paper is much liked by printers. 

The wood from poplar, which is generally preferred, 
furnishes a very white fibre, and is easily digested, but 
since the fibres are short it is sometimes found advan- 
tageous to mix them with longer fibres, as those of the 
spruce or pine, although the latter wood requires a mucñ 
more severe treatment in boiling with alkali than the 
former. In reference to this process the following re- 
marks appeared in The Chemist* 1855 : — " The process 
occupies only a few hours ; in fact, a piece of wood may 
be converted into paper and printed upon within twenty- 
four hours." An interesting verification of this was 
published a few years since in an American paper, the 
Southern Tr cicle Gazette, of Kentucky, which runs as fol- 
lows : — " At a wood-pulp mili at Augusta, Ga., a tree was 
cut down in the forest at six o'clock a.m., was made into 
pulp, and then into paper, at six o'clock in the evening, 
and distributed amongst the people as a newspaper by six 
o'clock the next morning. From a tree to a newsj)aper, 
being read by thousands, in the brief round of twenty-four 
hours ! " The wood-paper process referred to has given 
rise to many subsequent modifications, some of which we 
will briefly describe. 

Sinclair 's Process. — The wood is first cut into pieces 
* The Chemist. Edited by Charles and John Watt, p. 552 ; 1855. 


about 1 incb broad, |-th incb tbick, and from 2 to 3 incbes 
long. It is then placed in a boiler and a solution of caus- 
tic soda, in tbe proportions of 600 gallons to 10 cwts. of 
dry wood, is poured over it. The boiler baving been se- 
curely closed, tbe beat is raised till a pressure of 180 to 
200 lbs. on tbe square incb is obtained, wben tbe fire is 
witbdrawn and tbe boiler allowed to cool, after which tbe ley 
is blown off, tbe top door removed, and tbe contents scalded. 
Tbe discbarge door is now opened and tbe pulp transí erred 
to a poacbing-engine to be wasbed witb puré water, wben 
tbe resin, &c., are easily removed and tbe clean fibres ob- 
tained, wbicb, it is said, are longer and fimier tban tbose 
obtained by otber methods. 

Keegan's Process. — By tbis metbod sof t deal or pine is 
sawn np into pieces from 6 to 12 incbes long and -§ incb 
tbick, it being preferable tbat all tbe pieces sbould be of 
an equal size, but tbe smaller tbey are tbe more rapid, of 
course, will be tbe operation. Tbe pieces of timber are 
placed in a cylindrical boiler, tnrning upon a borizontal 
axis wbile tbe digestión is progressing. In a second 
boiler is prepared a solution of caustic soda of about 
20° B. (specific gravity 1*161), wbicb is introduced 
tbrough a pipe into tbe first boiler, tbis being afterwards 
hermetically closed, and tbe soda is forced into tbe pores 
of tbe wood by means of a pump. Wben tbe wood is not 
more tban balf an incb in tbickness a pressure of 50 lbs. 
on tbe square incb is sufficient, and tbe injection of tbe 
caustic soda solution is completed in balf an bour. The 
superabundant liquor is pumped back into tbe second 
boiler for tbe next operation. Tbe excess of liquor 
baving been remoA^ed from tbe wood as stated, steam is 
introduced between tbe double sides of tbe first boiler, and 
tbe temperature of tbe wood raised from 150° to 190° C. 
(334° to 438° F.). The wood is next wasbed in the 
usual way until tbe liquor runs off perfectly limpid, and 
tbe half-stuff tbus produced may be converted into pulp 
eitber before or after bleacbing, according to tbe quality 
and colour of tbe paper to be produced. 


American Wood-Pulp System. — Another method of 
carrying out tlie wood-pulp process has recently been de- 
scribed by Mr. E. A. Congdon, Ph.B.,* from which we 
extract the following : — " Poplar, pine, spruce, and occa- 
sionally birch, are used in the manufacture of chemical 
fibre, Pine and spruce give a longer and tougher fibre 
than poplar and birch, but are somewhat harder to treat, 
requiring more soda and bleacb. Sticks of poplar, freed 
from bark, and cleansed from incrusting matter and dirt, 
are reduced to chips by a special machine baving a heavy 
iron revolving disc set with knives, and are tben blown by 
means of a Sturtevantblowerinto large stove chambers after 
passing over a set of sieves having lj-inch for the coarse 
and l|-inch mesh for the fine sieves, from whence they 
pass to the digesters, which are upright boilers 7 by 
27 feet, with a manhole at the top for charging the chips 
and liquor, and a blow-valve at the bottom for the exit of 
the boiled wood. A steam-pipe enters at the bottom, be- 
neath a perf orated diaphragm, and keeps the liquor in per- 
fect circulation during the boiling of the wood. by means 
of a steam-ejector of special construction." 

Boiling. — The average charge of wood for each digester 
is 4 - 33 cords,f giving an average yield of 4,140 lbs. of 
finished fibre per digester. A charge of 3,400 gallons 
of caustic soda solution of 11° B. is given to each digester 
charged with chips, and the manhead is then placed 
in position and steam turned on. Charging the digester 
occupies from thirty to forty-five minutes, and steam 
is introduced until the gauge indicates a pressure of 
110 lbs., which occupies about three hours. This pres- 
sure is kept up for seven hours, when it is reduced by 
allowing the steam to escape into a large iron tank which 
acts as a separating chamber for the spent liquor it carries, 
the steam entering in at one end and passing out at the 
other through a large pipe, the liquor remaining in the 

* School of Mines Quarterly, a Journal of Applied Science. Jan., 1889. 
t The cord is a pile containing 128 cubic feet, or a pile 8 feet long, 
4 feet high, and 4 feet broad. 


tank. The steam is allowed to escape until tlie pressure 
is reduced to 45 lbs., when the digester is blown. The 
blow-cap being removed, the blow-valve is raised and the 
contents of the digester are discharged into a pan of iron 
covered with a suitable hood. The contents strike against 
a dash-plate placed midway in the pan, which thoroughly 
separates the fibres of the wood. The time occupied in the 
foregoing operations is from eleven to eleven and a half 
hours. It takes from nine to ten hours to free the pans 
from alkali, when they are removed to washing-tanks with 
perforated metal bottoms, where the material receives a 
final washing bef ore being bleached. 

Washing. — Each of the three digesters has a pan into 
which its contents are discharged, and there are also four 
iron tanks used f or holding the liquors of various strengths 
obtained from the cleansing of the pulp and a fifth tank 
is kept as the separating-tank before mentioned. When 
the digester is blown, the pulp is levelled down with a 
shovel, and the liquor from the separating-tank is allowed 
to flow into it. The contents of the next strongest pan 
are pumped upon it, while at the same time the strongest 
store tank flows into this pan. This flowing from the tank 
to the pan, pumping from here to the pan just blown, and 
from there to the evaporators, is kept up until the liquor 
is not weaker than 6 o B. hot (130° F.). The second pan 
is now down to 4 o B. hot, and the process of "pumping 
back " is commenced. The two weakest tanks are put 
upon this pan and pumped out of the bottom of it into the 
two tanks in which are kept the strongest liquors. The 
two weak tanks have been filled in the process of complet- 
ing the cleansing of the third pan (the weakest) on which 
water was pumped until the last weak tank stood at only 
J° B. This pan, now cleaned, is hosed and pumped over 
to the washing tanks. A fresh blow is now made in 
this pan, and the same treatment kept up as with ihe 
first pan. 

The foregoing system is thus illustrated by Mr. 
Congdon : — 


Pan A. — Just blown. 
,, B. — Partly cleaned. 
,, C. — Almost cleaned. 

Tank 1.— 3J° B. hot. 

j> 2. — 2 ,, ,, 
»> 3. — 1 ,, „ 

Separating tank, strong. 

A is levelled down ; contents of separating-tank allowed 
to flovv upon it ; b is pumped on to a ; at the same time 
liquor from the two strong store tanksis put on it (b), and 
this continued to be sent from a to the evaporator until it 
is now weaker than 4 o B. hot ; the process of " pumping 
back " is then commenced. The two weakest are allowed 
in succession to flow on to it, and the liquor purified from 
the bottom of b into the two strong tanks, filling No. 1, 
the stronger, before ISTo. 2. The weakest are filled in the 
process of completing the cleansing of c, on which water 
is pumped until the last tank from it tests only ^° B. c is 
now hosed and pumped over to the washing tanks. A 
fresh digester is blown in c, and the process repeated as 
with a. 

The above system has been modified by having an 
extra pan into which the liquor from the last pan blown 
(af ter sending to the evaporctors until down to 6 o hot, and 
bringing down to 4 o hot, by the stored liquor) is pumped. 
When the strength is reduced to 4° the pumping is 
stopped. The liquor from this pan is put in the next pan 
blown, after the liquor from the separating-tank has been 
put upon it, whereoy an economy in time is effected. 

The pulp, after being partially cleaned in the pans, 
still contains an appreciable quantity of soda. It is hosed 
over to the washing-tanks and receives a final washing 
with hot water. When the pulp is thoroughly free from 
alkali, and the water flowing from under the tank is 
eolourless, the contents are hosed down by hot water into 
the bleaching-tanks. The superfluous water is removed 
by revolving washers, and about 1,000 gallons of a solu- 


tion of chloride of lime at 4 o B. are then introduced, and 
the contents agitated as usual. The bleaching occupies 
about six or seven hours, when the pulp is pumped into 
draining tanks, where it is left to drain down hard, the 
spent bleaeh flowing away. The stock is theu hosed and 
pumped into a washing-tank, where it acquires the proper 
consistency f or the machine. From here it is pumped into 
the stuff chest, whence it goes over a set of screens and on 
to the machine, from which the finished fibre is run off on 
spindles. The rolls are made of a convenient size to 
handle, averaging about 100 lbs. each. The fibre is dried 
on the machine by passing over a series of iron cylinders 
heated by steam. The finished product is a heavy white 
sheet, somewhat resembling blotting paper. The whole 
of the foregoing operations are stated to occupy forty-five 

Aussedat's Process. — By this method the wood is dis- 
integrated by the action of jets of vapour. In one end of 
a cylindrical high-pressure boiler, about 4J feet in diame- 
ter and 10 feet high, is fixed a false bottom, whereby the 
wood placed upon it may be removed from the liquor result- 
ing from steam condensed in the chamber, the whole being 
mounted on lateral bearings which serve for the introduc- 
tion of the vapour, and the wood is f ed through a manhole 
at the upper end of the boiler. Taps are fixed at the 
upper and lower ends for the liquid and uncondensed 
vapour. The wood having been placed in the boiler, the 
jet is gradually turned on in such a way that at the end of 
three or four hours the temperature becomes about 150° C, 
the pressure being about five atmospheres, which point is 
maintained for an hour. As the slightest contact between 
the wood and the condensed water would at once discolour 
the former, it is essential that the liquid be removed from 
time to time by one of the outlets provided for the pur- 

The treatment above described is said to be suitable for 
all kinds of wood, and although it is the usual practice to 
introduce it in logs about a yard long, any waste wood, as 


chips, shavings, etc., may be used. It is preferable, though 
not necessary, to remove the bark, but all rotten wood 
may be lef t, as it becomes removed in the condensed water. 
The logs, af ter the above treatment, by which the fibre is 
disintegrated and the sap and all matters of a gummy or 
resinous nature are removed, are af terwards cut up by any 
suitable means into discs of about an inch, according to 
the nature of the fibre required. These are then intro- 
duced into a breaker, in which they become converted into 
half-stuff, which, after being mixed with a suitable quan- 
tity of water is passed through milis provided with conical 
stones, in which it becomes reduced to whole-stuff. The 
pulp thus prepared is principally used in the manufacture 
of the best kinds of cardboard, but more particularly such 
as is used by artists, since its light brownish shade is said 
to improve the tone of the colours. Bourdillat says that 
in the above process the vapour has a chemical as well as 
a mechanical action, for in addition to the vapour travers- 
ing the cellular tissues of the wood and dissolving a con- 
siderable portion of the cell-constituents, acetic acid is 
liberated by the heat, which assists the vapour in its action 
on the internal substance of the wood. 

Acid Treatment of Wood. — A series of processes have 
been introduced from time to time, the object of which is 
to effect the disintegration of wood fibre by the action of 
acids. The first of these " acid processes" was devised by 
Tilghmann in 1866, in which he employed a solution of 
sulphurous acid ; the process does not appear to have been 
successful, however, and was subsequently abandoned, the 
same inventor having found that certain acid sulphites 
could be used more advantageously. Other processes have 
since been introduced, in which wood is treated in a direct 
way by the action of strong oxidising acids, as nitric and 
nitro-hydrochloric acids, by which the intercellular matters 
of the wood become dissolved and the cellulose left in a 
fibrous condition. 

Pictet and Brélaz's Frocess. — By this process wood is 
subjected to the action of a vacuum, and also to that of a 


supersaturated solution of sulphurous acid at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding 212° F. In carrying out the process a 
solution of sulphurous acid is used, consisting of , say f rom 
\ to \ Ib. avoirdupois of sulphurous acid to each quart of 
water, and employed under a pressure of from three to six 
atmospheres at 212° F. Under these conditions the 
cementing substances of the wood " retain their chemical 
character without a trace of decomposition of a nature to 
show carbonisation, while the liquor completely permeates 
the wood and dissolves out all the cementing constituents 
that envelop the fibres." In carrying out the process 
practically, the wood is first cut into small pieces as usual 
and charged into a digester of such strength as will resist 
the necessary pressure, the interior of which must be lined 
with lead. Water is then admitted into the vessel and 
afterwards sulphurous acid, from a suitable receiver in 
which it is stored in a liquid form until the proportion of 
acid has reached that before named, that is, from 100 to 150 
quarts of the acid to 1,000 quarts of water. The volume 
of the bath will be determined by the absorbing capacity 
of the wood, and is pref erably so regulated as not to mate- 
rially exceed that capacity. In practice it is pref erable to 
form a partial vacuum in the digester, by which the pores 
of the wood are opened, when it will be in a condition to 
more readily absorb the solution and thereby accelerate the 
process of disintegration. When disintegration is effected, 
which generally occurs in from twelve to twenty-four 
hours, according to the nature of the wood under treat- 
ment, the liquor, which is usually not quite spent in one 
operation, is transferred to another digester, a sufficient 
quantity of water and acid being added to complete the 
charge. In order to remove the liquor absorbed by the 
wood, the latter is compressed, the digester being connec- 
ted with a gas-receiver, into which the f ree gas escapes and 
in which it is collected for use again in subsequent opera- 
tions. The bath is heated and kept at a temperature of 
from 177° to 194° F. by means of a coil in the digester 
supplied with steam from a suitable generator. The wood, 


after disintegration, undergoes the usual treatment to con- 
vert it into paper pulp, and may thus be readily bleached 
by means of chloride of lime. The unaltered by-products 
contained in tlie bath may be recovered and treated f or use 
in the arts by well-known methods. 

Barre and Blondel's Process consists in digesting the 
wood for twenty-four hours in 50 per cent, nitric acid, 
used cold, by which it is converted into a soft fibrous 
mass. This is next boiled for some hours in water and 
afterwards in a solution of carbonate of soda ; it is then 
bleached in the usual way. 

Poncharac's Process. — In this process cold nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid (aqua regia) is employed for disintegrating 
wood in the proportions of 94 parts of the latter to 6 parts 
of nitric acid, the mixture being made in earthen vessels 
capable of holding 175 gallons. The wood is allowed to 
soak in the acid mixture for six to twelve hours. 132 lbs. 
of aqua regia are required for 220 lbs. of wood. When it 
is desired to opérate with a hot liquid, 6 parts of hydro- 
chloric acid, 4 parts of nitric acid, and 240 parts of water 
are used in granite tubs provided with a double bottom, 
and it is heated by steam for twelve hours and then 
washed and crushed. 

Young and Pettigrew's Process. — These inventors use 
either nitric or nitrous acids, and the acid fumes which 
are liberated are condensed and reconverted into nitric 

Fridet and Matussiere's Process. — This process, which 
was patented in France in 1865, consists in treating wood 
with nitro -hydrochloric acid, for which purpose a mixture 
of 5 to 40 per cent, of nitric acid and 60 to 95 per cent, 
of hydrochloric acid is used, which destroys all the ligne- 
ous or intercellular matter without attacking the cellulose. 
After the wood (or straw) has been steeped in the acid 
mixture, the superfluity is drawn off, and the remaining 
solid portion is ground under vertically revolving mill- 
stones. The brownish-coloured pulp thus obtained is 
afterwards washed and bleached in the usual way. 


It is quite trae that cellulose can be obtained f rom wood 
and other vegetable substances by treatment with nitric acid 
alone, or with. a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, 
but it will be readily seen that the employment of such 
large quantities of these acids as would be required to 
effect the object in view on a practical scale, would be 
fraught with incalculable difficulties, amongst which may 
be mentioned the insuperable difficulty of obtaining ves- 
seis that would resist the powerful corrosive action of the 
acids. Moreover, since nitric acid forms with cellulose an 
explosive substance (xyloidin) of the gun cotton series, the 
risk involved in the drying of the cellulose obtained woulcl 
be quite sufficient to forbid the use of processes of this 


TEEATMENT OF WOOD {continúen). 

Sulphite Processes. — Francke's Process. — Ekman's Process. — Dr. Mit- 
sch.erlich.'s Process. — Ritterand Kellner's Boiler. — Partington's Pro- 
cess. — Blitz's Process. — McDougall's Boiler for Acid Processes. — 
Graham's Process. — Objections to the Acid or Sulphite Processes. — 
Sulphite Fibre and íiesin. — Adamson's Process. — Sulphide Pro- 
cesses. — Mechanical Processes. — Voelter's Process. — Thune's Process. 

Sulphite Processes. — An important and successful 
raethod of treating wood has been found in employing 
sulphurous acid, combined in certain proportions with 
soda, lime, or magnesia, whereby a bisulphite of the alka- 
line or earthy base is obtained. One of the principal 
attributes of these agents is that in boiling wood at high 
pressures oxidation and consequent browning of the fibres 
is prevented. Of these sulphite, or more properly bisul- 
phite, processes, several of those ref erred to below have 
been very extensively adopted, and vast quantities of so- 
called " sulphite pulp " are imported into this country 
from Norway, Germany, Scandinavia, &c, the product 
from the latter source being considered specially suited 
for the English market. Some of these processes are also 
being worked in this country, but more particularly those 
of Partington, McDougall, and Ekman. 

Trancke's Process. — In this process, which is known 
as the " bisulphite process," the active agent employed for 
the disintegration of wood is an acid sulphite of an alkaline 
or earthy base, as soda or potassa, lime, &c, but it is 
scarcely necessary to say that the process has since 
been modified by others. The invention is applicable 
to the treatment of wood, esparto, straw, etc., and may 


be thus briefly described : — A solvent is first prepared, 
which is an acid sulphite of an alkali or earth, that is, a 
solution of such sulphite with an excess of sulphurous acid. 
As the cheapest and most accessible base the inventor 
prefers lime. It has long been known that a solution of 
sulphite of lime, combined with free sulphurous acid, 
would, at a high temperature, dissolve the intercellular 
portion» of vegetable ubres, leaving the fibres in a suitable 
condition for paper manufacture ; but Mr. Francke claims 
to have determined the conditions under which this can 
be eff ected with rapidity, and in such a way as to preserve 
the strength of the fibres, and to have obtained a practical 
method of preparing pulp by his process. Por his purpose 
he employs a moderately strong solution of the solvent at 
a high temperature, with gentle but constant agitation. 
The acid sulphite is produced by this process at small cost 
and at a temperature nearly high enough for use in the 
f ollowing way : — A tower or column is charged with f rag- 
ments of limestone, which are kept wetted with a shower 
of water ; fumes of sulphurous acid, produced by burning 
sulphur, or by roasting pyrites, etc., are then passed through 
the tower. The liquid which collects at the bottom of the 
tower is the desired solvent, which should have a strength 
of 4° to 5 o B. It is not essential that the limestone should 
be puré, as magnesian limestone, etc., will answer equally 
well. The soluble alkalies, as soda and potassa, may also 
be used when their greater cost is not an objection. But 
for these alkalies the treatment is modified, as follows : — 
The tower is charged with inert porous material, such as 
coke, bricks, etc., and these are kept wetted by a shower 
of caustic alkali at 1° to 2 o B., while the sulphurous acid 
fumes are passed through the tower. In like manner car- 
bonate of soda or potassa may be used, but in this case the 
solution showered on the porous material should be stronger 
than that of the caustic alkali, so that it may contain ap- 
proximately the same amount of real alkali. Whichever 
alkaline base be employed, the liquid collected at the bot- 
tom of the tower should have a strength of 4 o to 5 o B. ; 


tbis being tbe acid sulpbite of tlie base is used as tbe sol- 
vent employed for tbe manufacture of pulp. Wben wood 
is to be treated, it is freed as niucb as possible frora resin- 
ous knots by boring and cutting theni out, and is tben 
cut — by preference obliquely — into cbips of a \ to f of an 
incb tbick. Esparto, straw, and analogous fibres are cut 
into fragments. Tbe fibrous material and solvent are 
cbarged into a digester beated by steam at a pressure of 
f our or five atmospberes, and consequently capable of rais- 
ing tbe temperature of tbe contents to about 300° F. 
As agitation greatly promotes tbe pulping of tbe materials, 
Mr. Francke employs a revolving cylindrical boiler, wbicb 
is allowed to revolve wbile tbe cbarge is under treatment. 
Ekraan's Process. — In tbis process, wbicb in some 
respects bears a resemblance to tbe preceding, native car- 
bonate of magnesia (magnesite) is first calcined to conv r ert 
it into magnesia ; it is tben placed in towers lined witb 
lead, and sulpburous acid gas, obtained by tbe burning of 
sulpbur in suitable f urnaces, is passed tbrougb tbe mass, 
a stream of water being allowed to trickle down from tbe 
top of tbe towers. Tbe supply of gas is so regulated tbat 
a continua! formation of a solution of bisulpbite of mag- 
nesium, of an unif orm strengtb, is obtained ; great care, 
bowever, is necessary to avoid excess and consequent loss 
of sulpburous acid by its conversión into sulpburic acid. 
In boiling, tbe fragments of wood, previously crusbed by 
beavy roílers, are placed in a jacketed, lead-lined, cylin- 
drical boiler, suspended on trunnions, so tbat it can be 
inverted to remove tbe cbarge. Tbe pressure in tbe outer 
jacket is 70 lbs. per square incb, and tbat witbin tbe 
boiler is 90 lbs. per square incb. Tbe boiling occupies 
twelve bours. Tbis process bas been extensively worked 
by tbe Bergvik and Ala Company, of Sweden, for many 
years witb great success, and we understand tbat tbe com- 
pany bas been turned over to an Englisb company — tbe 
Bergvik Company, Limited. Tbe Ilford Mili and JNorth- 
fleet Works bave been largely supplied witb sulpbite pulp 
from tbe Swedisb works. 


One great drawback to the bisulphite processes is that the 
boiling cannot be effected in iron boilers unless these be 
lined with sonie material wbicli will protect the iron from 
the destructive action of the bisulphite, which, being an 
acid salt, would exert more action upon the iron than upon 
the fibre itself, and the solution of iron thus f ormed would 
inevitably prove injurious to the colour of the fibre. In 
several of the systems adopted iron boilers lined with lead 
have Been used, but the heavy cost of this material and 
its liability to expand unequally with the iron, es}3ecially 
at the high temperatures which the solvent necessarily 
attains under pressure, causes the lead to sepárate from 
the iron, while it is apt to bulge out in places, and thus 
becomes liable to crack and allow the acid liquor to find 
its way to the interior of the iron boiler which it was 
destined to protect. To overeóme this objection to the 
simple lead lining, Dr. Mitscherlich patented a process 
which has been extensively adopted in Germany, and is 
now being carried out by several companies in different 
parts of America. This process is briefly described below. 

Dr. Mitscherlich's Process. — The digester employed 
in this process is lined with thin sheet lead, which is 
cemented to the inner surf ace of the boiler by a cement 
composed of common tar and pitch, and the lead lining is 
then faced with glazed porcelain bricks. In this process a 
weaker bisulphite of lime is used than in Francke's, and 
the time of boiling is consequently considerably prolonged. 

Kitter and Kellner have proposed to unite the inner 
surface of the boiler to its lead lining by interposing a 
sof t metal alloy, fusible at a temperature lower than that 
of either metal, and it is claimed that the iron and lead 
are thus securely united, while the alloy being fusible 
under the normal working temperature of the digester, 
the lead lining can slide freely on a boiler shell. 

Partington's Process. — This process,. which has been 
for some time at work at Barrow, and for the further de- 
velopment of which a private company, entitled the Hull 
Chemical Wood Pulp Company, Limited, has been f ormed, 


consists in the employment of sulphite of lime as tlie dis- 
integrating agent. The process consists in passing gaseous 
sulphurous acid — formed by burning sulphur in a retort, 
into which is forced a current of air at a pressure of 5 lbs. 
to the square inch — through a series of three vessels, con- 
nected by pipes, the vessels being charged with milk of 
lime. The first two of these vessels are closed air-tight, 
and the gas is then introduced, while the third vessel 
remains open ; from this latter a continuous stream of 
nitrogen escapes, due to the removal of the oxygen by the 
burning sulphur from the air passed into the retort. This 
process is said to be a very economical one, so far as 
relates to the cost of materials used. 

Blitz's Frocess. — This process consists of employing a 
mixture composed of bisulphite of soda 2 parts, caustic 
soda 1 part ; and vanadate of ammonia 1 gramme, in hy- 
drochloric acid 4 grammes to every 6 kilogrammes of the 
bisulphite. The wood, after being cut up in the ordinary 
way, is submitted to the action of the abo ve mixture, 
under a pressure of three or four atmospheres, for from 
four to eight hours, and the pulp is then ground ; it is said 
to possess some of the qualities of rag pulp and to look 
much like it. 

McDougall's Boiler for Acid Processes. — This in- 
vention is intended to obviate the dimculties which arise 
in using lead-lined boilers, owing to the unequal expansión 
and contraction of the lead and the iron on their being 
alternately heated by steam and cooled, on the discharge 
of each successive batch of pulp. This invention consists 
in constructing the boilers with. an intermediate packing 
of felt, or other compressible and elastic material, so that 
when the interior leaden vessel is heated, and thereby 
enlarged and pressed outwards by the steam, the com- 
pressible and elastic packing yields to the pressure and 
expansión. Also in the cooling of the vessels the_ packing 
responds to the contraction, and approximates to its origi- 
nal bulk and pressure between the two vessels, and so 
prevenís the rupture or tearing of the lead and consequent 


leakage and other inconveníences. Another part of this 
invention consists in the construction of the outer iron or 
steel vessel in flanged sections, which are fitted to incase 
the interior leaden vessel with a space between the two 
vessels, into which the compressible and elastic materials 
are packed. In the construction of these vessels the iron 
or steel flanged sections are placed on to the leaden vessel 
and jpacked with the compressible and elastic lining in 
succession. As each section is packed it is screwed cióse 
up to the adjoining section by the screw bolts, fitted into 
corresponding holes in the flanges of the contiguous sec- 
tion until completed. This method of construction secures 
economy by the retention of the heat, which is effected by 
the packing between the two vessels. The materials used 
for the packing are caoutchouc, felt, flocks, asbestos, etc., 
and a space of about two inches between the vessels is pre- 
ferred, into which the packing is filled. 

Graham's Frocess. — This process consists in boiling 
fibrous substances in a solution of sulphurous acid, or a 
sulphite or bisulphite of soda, potash, magnesia, or lime, 
or other suitable base and water. The boiling is preferable 
conducted in a closed boiler, lined with lead, to protect it 
from the action of the chemical substances used, and is 
fitted with a valve which can be opened to allow the gases 
and volatile hydrocarbons contained in and around the 
fibres to escape. The method of carrying out the process 
has been thus described : — " In carrying out the process 
there is a constant loss of sulphurous acid gas going on, 
and consequently a continual weakening of the solution 
employed, to avoid which it is preferable to employ mono- 
sulphite of potash, soda, magnesia, lime, or other suitable 
base, and water. Either of these substances, or a suitable 
combination of them, and water are placed in the boiler 
with the fibrous substances to be treated, and the tempera- 
ture raised to the boiling point. After the hydrocarbons, 
air, and gases natural to the fibrous substances have been 
driven out by the heat and allowed to escape, sulphurous 
acid, in its gaseous or liquid state, or in combination with 


either of the bases referred to, is purnped or injected into 
the boiler. There is thus forming in the closed boiler a 
solution containing an excess of sulphurous acid above that 
required to form, in conibination with the base, a mono- 
sulpbite. The operation of injecting sulphurous acids, or 
the sulphites, may be repeated froni time to time during 
the boiling, so as to fully maintain, and if necessary in- 
crease, the strength and efficiency of the chemical solu- 
tion. It is said that by this process a saving of the 
chemicals employed is effected, as little or no sulphurous 
acid gas is lost during the time the gaseous hydrocarbons, 
air, and other gaseous matters are being expelled from 
the fibrous materials. If an open vessel is used instead 
of a closed boiler, it will be necessary to keep the solu- 
tion at a fairly uniform strength, and if necessary to 
increase the strength, but the result will be substan- 
tially the same ; but as it is evident that, when using an 
open boiler, the excess of sulphurous acid supplied during 
the boiling will be constantly driven off as gas, it must be 
replaced by further injections, while the acid fumes may 
be conveyed away and condensed, so as to be available for 
further use. When the fibrous substances are boiled as 
above, with the addition of potash, soda, etc., during the 
boiling, the result will be equally beneficial. The inventor 
prefers to inject the sulphurous acid or its combinations 
into the boiler at the bottom, and to cause it to come in 
contact with the solution therein before reaching the 
fibrous materials. For this purpose there is formed a kind 
of chamber beneath the boiler, but separated from it by a 
perforated disc or diaphragm of lead or other suitable 
material not acted upon by the solution, so as to allow the 
latter to fill the chamber, to which is connected a pipe, 
through which the sulphurous acid or solutions of the sul- 
phites is forced by any suitable apparatus. 

OTbjections to the Acid or Bisulphite Processes. — 
While the various methods of boiling wood in caustic 
soda at high temperatures are well known to be open to 
serious objections, the acid treatment of wood also presenta 


many disadvantages, wbicb it is to be boped may be yet 
overeóme. In reference to tbis, Davis makes tbe follow- 
ing observations : — " In tbe acid treatment of wood for tbe 
purpose of converting tbe fibres into pulp for use in 
paper manufacture, tbe general practice bas been to use 
alkaline solutions of soda, combined in various proportions 
witb certain acids, sucb, for instance, as sulpburous acid, 
bydrocbloric acid, etc. Tbese solutions bave been beated 
in digesting vessels, and tbe bigb temperature resulting 
from tbis process of beating developing a pressure of 
from six to seven atmospberes, tbe wood being disin- 
tegrated by tbe action of tbe boiling solutions, tbe gum, 
resinous constituents, and otber incrustating or cementing 
substances tbat bind tbe fibres togetber are decomposed, 
destroyed, or dissolved, wbile puré cellulose, wbicb con- 
stitutes tbe essential element of tbe ligneous fibres, is 
separated tberefrom. To tbis end bigb temperatures bad 
to be employed, otberwise tbe disintegration was found 
to be only partial, tbe wood remaining in a condition 
unfit for furtber treatment. Tbe bigb temperature not 
unfrequently converts a large proportion of the resinous 
and gummy constituents of tbe wood into tar and pitcb — 
tbat is to say, carbonaceous bodies tbat penétrate into tbe 
fibre and render its bleacbing difficult, laborious, and 
costly, wbile tbe frequent wasbing and lixiviation neces- 
sary to bleacb sucb produets seriously affect tbe strengtb of 
tbe fibre and its wbiteness, and also materially reduce tbe 
percentage of tbe product, in some instances to tbe extent 
of 18 per cent. Tbese difficulties and detrimental results 
materially enbance tbe cost of production, wbile tbe fibre 
itself suffers considerably in strengtb from tbe repeated 
action of tbe cbloride of lime. . . . Tbe difficulties are 
cbiefly due to tbe carbonisation of certain constituent 
parts of tbe fibres under temperatures exceeding 212° 
F., sucb carbonised matters being insoluble and in- 
capable of being bleacbed, and as tbey permeate tbe fibre, 
cannot be entirely removed. 

"To overeóme tbese difficulties, tbe wood sbould be 


chemically treated at a temperature sufíiciently low to 
ensure that tlie decomposition of the connecting substances 
of the fibres will remain chemically combined with the 
other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, 
in order to obtain an increased product of superior 
quality and render the process more economical." 

Sulphite Fibre and Resin. — A Germán manufacturer 
sent tbe following communication to tbe Papier Zeüung, 
which may be interesting to tbe users of sulpbite pulp : — 
" In making [disintegrating] cellulose by tbe soda or sul- 
pbite process, tbe object in boiling is to loosen tbe incrust- 
ing partióles in tbe wood, resin included, and to libérate 
tbe fibres. Tbe resin is dissolved botb in tbe soda and 
sulpbite processes, but in tbe former it is at tbe same 
time saponified, and is consequently very easily washed 
out. In tbe case of sulpbite fibre, however, tbe resin 
attacbes itself by its own adhesiveness to tbe fibres, but 
can also be removed by as bot wasbing as possible, and 
adding a little bydrocbloric acid, which produces a very 
great effect. At tbe same time, bowever, sulpbite fibre 
loses in whiteness by tborougb wasbing, and assumes a 
reddisb-grey sbade. As tbe paper manufacturer insists 
upon wbite fibre, tbe manufacturer of sulpbite fibre not 
only often omits wasbing, but adds some sulpbite solu- 
tion (bisulpbite of lime). Tbis not only enables bim 
to give bis customers wbite fibre, but be also sells a 
quantity of tbe incrusting partióles and sulpbite residuum 
as cellulose. 

" So long as tbe manufacturer looks more to wbite tban 
to well-wasbed cellulose, or does not wasb it well before 
working up tbe fibre, tbese annoyances cannot be avoided. 
Not only tbis, but otber disadvantages will be added in 
tbe course of time, as tbe action of tbe sulpburous acid in 
tbe pulp will bave very injurious consequences on metáis 
— [and on tbe fibre itself?] especially iron — coming in 
contact witb it. Tbis sbould be tbe more avoided, as tbe 
wbiteness of tbe unwasbed cellulose is of very sbort 
duration. Tbe paper made from it soon turns yellow and 
becomes brittle. Well-wasbed sulpbite fibre, on tbe otber 


hand — provided no mistakes ha ve been made in tlie boil- 
ing process — makes a strong, grippy paper, which can 
withstand both air and sunlight. I nave made no special 
studies as to resin, but believe that pine and fir act dif- 
ferently, especially with solvents." 

Adamson's Frocess. — Mr. W. Adamson, of Phila- 
delphia, obtained a patent in 1871 for the use of hydro- 
carbons in the treatment of wood. His process consisted 
in treating the wood with benzine in closed vessels, under 
a pressure of 5 to 10 lbs., according to the nature of the 
wood. His digester consisted of an upright cylinder, in 
which the wood-shavings were placed between two per- 
forated diaphragms. The mass was heated beneath the 
lower diaphragm by a coil through which steam was 
passed. The vapours which were given off were allowed 
to escape through a pipe on the top of the digester, to 
which was connected a coil immersed in a vessel of cold 
water, and the condensed liquid then returned to the 
lower part of the digester. The remaining portion of the 
benzine in the digester, which was still liquid but 
saturated with the extracted matters, was drawn off 
through a faucet at the bottom. Benzine being a very 
cheap article in America, a similar process was recom- 
mended in another patent by the same author for extrac- 
tion of pitch and tar from rags [tarpaulin, ropes, &c. ?], 
and for removing oil from rags and cotton waste. 

Sulphide Processes.^Many attempts were made about 
thirty years ago, and in subsequent years, to employ the 
soluble sulphides as a substitute for caustic soda in 
boiling wood and other fibres, but these processes do not 
appear to have been very successf ul. Later improvements 
in the construction of boilers or digesters, however, seem 
to have induced further experiments in this direction, and 
we understand that several sulphide processes are being 
worked on the Continent, the processes of MM. Dahl and 
Blitz being amongst them. One of the supposed advan- 
tages of these sulphides over caustic soda is that by 
evaporation and calcination of the liquors, or leys, by 
svhich the organic matters become destroyed, the original 


product would be recovered, wbieh. merely requires to be 
dissolved out f or furtber use. Tbere are, however, several 
important objections to tbe use of sulpbides in tnis way, 
amongst wbicb may be mentioned tbe deleterious vapours 
wbicb tbey emit ; and tbis alone would doubtless prevent 
tbeir employment — at all events in tbis country. 

II. Mechanical Processes. — Besides tbe various cbemi- 
cal metbods of separating cellulose from woody fibres, 
before described, certain processes bave been devised for 
reducing wood to tbe condition of pulp directly by mecba- 
nical means witbout tbe aid of any cbemical substance 
wbatsoever. In tbis direction Heinricb Yoelter, of Wur- 
temburg, appears to bave been tbe first to introduce a 
really practical process for tbe conversión of wood into 
pulp for paper-niaking, altbougb, as far back as 1756, Dr. 
Scbaeffer, of Bavaria, proposed to make paper from saw- 
dust and sbavings mecbanically f ormed into pulp : tbe pro- 
cess was not successful, bowever, witb tbe macbinery 
tben at bis command. 

Voelter's Frocess for Freparing Mechanical Wood 
Pulp. — In 1860-65 and 1873 Yoelter obtained patents 
in tbis country for bis metbods of treating wood mecba- 
nically, and tbe process may be tbus briefly described : — 
Blocks of wood, after tbe knots bave been cut out by 
suitable tools, are pressed against a revolving grindstone, 
wbicb reduces tbe material to a more or less fine condi- 
tion, but not in a powdery form, and tbe disintegrated 
fibre is caused to press against a wire screen, wbicb allows 
tbe finer partióles to pass tbrougb, retaining tbe coarser 
partióles for f urtber treatment. 

Tbe apparatus employed, wbicb is sbown in Eig. 
17a, consists of a pulping apparatus a, witb vat k, in 
wbicb tbe revolving stone s is placed ; tbe blocks of 
wood are beld against tbe stone at p p, and water is 
introduced at g, and tbe revolving stone carries tbe 
pulp against tbe screen e, wbicb admits tbe passage 
of tbe finer partióles of tbe wood, wbile tbe coarser 
partióles are led by tbe trougb f to tbe first refining 
cylinder b„ after passing tbrougb an oscillating basket, 

Fig. 17a.— Voelter's Wood-pulping Machine. 

[To face page 78. 


which retains the coarser partióles. From thenee it is led 
through a distributing apparatus and hopper c, to be uni- 
íormly supplied to the refining cylinder d, these cylinders 
being of the ordinary construction, and, as usual, covered 
with fine gauze wire sieves. The ground material which 
f ails to pass through the sieves is transí erred by an elevator 
to the millstones e, which are of ordinary construction, 
and after leaving these unites with the finer fibres which 
pass through e, the whole now entering a mixing reservoir 
f, whence it is thrown on to the cylinder g, and the pulp 
which passes into this is distributed on to a similar cylinder 
h, the contents of which then passes through the last 
cylinder 1, which is düferently constructed to the others, 
inasmuch as its lower part is surrounded by an imper- 
vious leather jacket, so that the pulp ascends in order to 
enter it. The disintegrated fibres that are retained by the 
wires of the cylinders pass into the refiners, which con- 
sist of a pair of horizontal cylinders of sandstone, one of 
which (the upper one) only revolves, and by the action of 
these the coarser fibres become further reduced, the finer 
partióles, as before, passing through the wire gauze of the 
cylinders, the operation being repeated in the same order 
until the whole of the fibres have passed through the sieves. 
Thune's Process — Mr. A. L. Thune, of Christiana, 
U.S. A., has recently patented an apparatus for disinte- 
grating wood, which consists of a grinding apparatus 
connected to a turbine. In this arrangement the grind- 
stone, fixed on a shaft, is worked by a turbine, and the 
wood, which is used in small blocks, is pressed against 
the stone by means of a series of hydraulic presses. 
The fine pulp is afterwards made into thick sheets by 
means of a board-machine, the pulp, mixed with water, 
passing down a shoot into a vat beneath, in which is a 
revolving cylinder covered with wire-cloth, which in its 
revolution carries with it a certain quantity of pulp in a 
continuous sheet ; this is taken on to an endless travelling 
belt by means of a small couch-roll, and passes on to a 
pair of rolls, round the upper one of which the sheet be- 
comes wound, and is removed when sufliciently thick. 


Treatment of Straw. — Bentley and Jackson's Boiler. — Boiling the 
Straw. — Bertrams' Edge-runner. — M. A. C. Mellier's Process. — 
Manilla, Jute, etc. — Waste Paper. — Boiling Waste Paper. — Eyan's 
Process for reating Waste Paper. 

Treatment of Straw. — As a paper-making material, the 
employment of straw is of very early date, a patent for 
producing paper f rom straw having been taken out by 
Matthias Koops as far back as 1801. The material, how- 
ever, was used iri its unbleached state, and formed a very 
ugly paper. "White paper was not obtained from straw 
un til 1841, but no really practical method of treating this 
material was devised until about ten years later, in France, 
when MM. Coupier and Mellier introduced a process 
which, with subsequent modifications, has been exten- 
sively adopted. A great advance in the manufacture of 
paper from straw has since been effected by the introduc- 
tion of various boilers, specially constructed for boiling 
the material at high pressures, and for keeping the alka- 
line liquors freely circulated amongst the fibre during the 
progress of the boiling. These boilers are of different 
f orms — being either cylindrical or spherical — and are pre- 
ferably of the revolving type, which causes the caustic ley 
employed in the boiling to become uniformly mixed 
with the fibre. Sometimes the vomiting boilers described 
elsewhere are used by paper-makers in preference to those 
referred to. 

Bentley and Jackson's Boiler. — This boiler, a repre- 
sentation of which is shown in Fig. 18, is 7 feet in 


diameter, 18 feet long on the cylindrical surface, with 
hemispherical ends of Martin-Siemens steel píate T \ inch 
thick in the shell, and \ inch. thick in the ends. It is 
double riveted in the longitudinal seams, has two mau- 
llóles 3x2, forged out of solid steel píate. Inside are 
two perforated lif ting plates or shelves, each 1 foot wide, 
\ inch thick, the f ull length of the shell, and secured to 
the ends by strong angle-irons ; it is supported on two 
turned cast-iron trunnions. These boilers are tested by 
hydraulic pressure to 120 lbs. per square inch. 

The varieties of straw generally used for paper-making 
in this country are wheat and oats, though rye and barley 
straws are also used, but in a lesser degree. The treat- 

Fig. 18. 

inent of straw difPers greatly at different milis, some 
makers using strong liquors and boiling at a lower pres- 
sure, while others prefer to use less caustic soda and boil 
at a higher pressure. There can be little doubt, however, 
that the high temperatures resulting f rom boiling at very 
high steam pressure must deteriórate the fibre consider- 
ably, causing subsequent loss of fibre in the processes of 
washing and bleaching. 

Boiling the Straw.— The straw is first cut into short 
lengths of one or two inches by means of a chaff-cutter, 
or by a machine similar to a rag-cutter, and the cut 
material is then driven by an air-blast through a wooden 
tube into a chamber having coarse wire-gauze sides : a 


secón d chamber surrounds this, in whicii the dust from 
the straw collects as it passes through the wire gauze. 
The winnowed straw, freed from dust and dirt, is then 
conveyed in sacks to the boilers. In charging the boilers, 
a certain quantity of ley is first introduced, and steam 
also, and the cut straw then added, which soon becomes 
softened, and sinks to the bottom of the boiler, when 
further quantities of the material are added, until the f ull 
charge has been given. The requisite proportion of ley 
and water is then run in and the head of the boiler secured 
in its place. Steam is now turned on, until a pressure of 
20 to 40 lbs., or even more, has been reached, when the 
boiling is kept up for 3-^- to 8 hours, according to the 
pressure used and fche strength of the alkaline liquor, 
which varíes from 9 o to 16° Tw. From 10 to 20 lbs. 
of caustic soda per cwt. of straw are generally required 
to boil the material thoroughly. The boiling being 
complete, steam is turned off, and when the boiler has. 
somewhat cooled, the material, which is in the form of 
a pulp, is discharged by the pipes beneath into a large 
tank or strainer, the bottom of which is fitted with 
a series of plates having long narrow openings or slits, 
through which the liquor drains. The pulp is then 
washed with water, and again allowed to drain thoroughly, 
after which it is dug out and transferred to the potcher to 
be again washed and bleached. At some milis the straw 
is boiled whole and not subjected to any preliminary cut- 
ting. In such cases the boiled straw, not being so fully 
pulped as when cut into short lengths, is emptied from 
the boiler through the manholes used for charging the 
material into the boiler. 

Bertrams' Edge-rimner. — For the purpose of crush- 
ing the knots of the straw, and other hard partióles de- 
rived from weeds, etc., a machine termed the "koller- 
gang " or " edge-runner " is sometimes employed. This 
machine, which is manufactured by Bertrams, Limited, 
and of which an illustration is given in Fig. 19, con- 
sists of two large millstones, made from hard red 


granite, the surfaces of which are sometimes grooved 
with V-shaped equidistant grooves. These stones are 
worked by a horizontal spindle, and are cansed to re- 
volve very rapidly in an iron basin, in which the washed 
pulp is placed, and by this means the knots and harder 

Fig. 19. 

portions of the fibre not fully acted upon by the caustic 
alkali, become so reduced as to be more readily accessible 
to the action of the bleach, and thus a very superior 
straw pulp is produced. In using this machine in the 
way indicated, the washed pulp is mixed in a chest pro- 


vided with agitators, with water, is then pumped into a 
second cliest above it, from whence it flows into the basin 
shown in the engraving, while the stones are revolving. 

M. A. C. Mellier's Process. — By this method the straw 
is first cut into small lengths as usual ; it is then steeped 
for a few hours in hot water, and afterwards placed hj 
preference in a jacketed boiler, the object being to heat 
the materials without weakening the ley by the direct 
introduction of steam into the body of the material. The 
boiler is to be heated to a pressure of 70 lbs. to the square 
inch, or to a temperature of about 310° F., by which 
ineans, it is said, a considerable saving of alkali is effected, 
as also time and fuel, as compared with the ordinary prac- 
tice of boilíng. The alkaline ley which M. Mellier prefers 
to use is from 2 o to 8 o B., or of the specific gravity of 
from 1*013 to 1*020, and in the proportion of about 70 
gallons of such solution to each cwt. of straw. The boiler 
should revolve very slowly, making about 1 or 2 revo- 
lutions per minute. The boiling occupies about 3 hours, 
at the pressure named, when the steam is turned ofí and 
cold water passed through the jacket of the boiler, which 
assists in cooling the pulp, the water thus used being 
afterwards employed in washing the pulp. The pulp is 
then thoroughly washed until the last water runs ofí quite 
clear, when it is next steeped for about an hour in hot 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid, in the proportion of 
about 2 per cent, of the weight of the libre. The pulp is 
then washed with cold water, when it is ready for bleach- 
ing in the usual way. 

Manilla, Jute, etc. — Previous to boiling these fibres it 
is usual to cut them into short pieces by a machine such 
as is used for cutting straw, after which they are cleaned 
in a willowing and dusting machine. The boiling is then 
conducted in the same way as for esparto. Manilla ubre 
is not so much used in this country as in the United 
States, where its employment forms an important feature 
in the manufacture of certain kinds of paper. Some idea 
of the extent to which it is used by the paper -makers of 


America inay be gleaned from tlie following statement of 
Mr. "Wyatt : — " Another large and iniportant branch of 
the American, paper trade are the milis running on news 
and Manilla paper. Many of these milis turn out a vast 
quantity of paper, running up to two hundred tons per 
week, besides making their own ground wood pulp. 
The American news is composed mainly of ground wood 
pulp, with an admixture of about 15 to 25 per cent, 
of súlphite wood or jute fibre, and not much loading, 
and the machines are run at high speed. What is termed 
Manilla paper is very largely used in the States, and much 
more so than with us for common writings, envelopes, and 
wrapping papers. The paper is composed of Manilla, 
jute flbre, oíd papers, etc., and is highly finished at the 
machine. I was told of one mili belonging to a large 
company running altogether six milis on news and 
Manilla, turning out, with one 96-inch machine and beater 
capacity of 1,800 lbs., and one Jordán, 10 to 12 tons of 
2,000 lbs., of Manilla paper per day at an average speed 
of 200 feet per minute." 

Jute is seldom reduced to the condition of a fine white 
pulp since the treatment necessary to obtain that condi- 
tion would result in a weak fibre ; it is usual, theref ore, 
to only partially reduce the material, when a strong fibre 
is obtained, which, lacking in whiteness, is used for coarse 
papers. This also applies to Adamsonia, or Baobab, 
another description of bast obtained from the West Coast 
of África. These fibres are chiefly used for papers which 
require strength rather than whiteness of colour, such as 
wrapping papers, &c. 

"Broke" paper is a term applied to paper which has 
been imperf ectly f ormed on the paper machine or damaged 
while passing over the drying cylinders. Imperfect sheets 
when they are not sold as retree, and clean waste paper, 
also come under this designation and are re-converted 
into pulp after undergoing the treatment described below. 

Waste Faper. — In treating waste paper for conversión 
into pulp for paper-making, it is doubtless advisable to 


sepárate, as f ar as can be done economically, papers which 

have been written upon with common ink, as oíd letters, 

documents, &c, from printed papers, since the latter 

require a more severe treatment than the former. Wbile 

simple boiling in water containing a little soda-ash will 

discharge ordinary writing ink, printer's ink can only be 

extracted by using ratber strong solutions of soda-asb or 

caustic soda ; and even with this treatment it can only be 

rendered serviceable for an inferior paper, owing to the 

grey colour of tbe resulting pulp, due to the carbón of the 

printer's ink, upon which tibe alkali bas no solvent effect. 

Boiling Waste Paper. — This is sometimes efíected in 

iron vats, about 8 feet deep and 8 feet in diameter at tbe 

bottom, and about 6 inches wider at tbe top. At tbe 

bottom of eacb vat is a false bottom, closely perforated 

with. small holes. Steam is introduced by a pipe below 

the false bottom, which passes through the perforations 

and thus becomes uniformly distributed to all parts of the 

vat. To facilítate the emptying of the vats, the false 

bottoms have connected to them three or four iron rods, 

to the tops of which iron chains are hooked, and by this 

means the false bottom, carrying the mass of boiled paper 

can be raised by a steam hoisting engine or crane and 

deposited where desired. When the boiling is commenced, 

the vat should first be about one-fourth filled with a solu- 

tion of soda-ash, and the steam then turned on. When 

the liquor boils, the papers having been previously dusted, 

are introduced gradually, and well distributed through 

the liquor ; if they are thrown into the vat in large quan- 

tities at a time, and especially if they are in a compact 

state, the portions in contact may not be reached by the 

liquor, and an imperfect boiling will be the result. To en- 

sure a unif orm distribution of the boiling liquor over the 

surf ace of the material, an iron pipe extends from the centre 

of the false bottom to nearly the top of the vat, and this 

pipe is covered with a hood, which causes the soda liquor 

to be evenly spread over the whole mass. The vats are 

either cased with wood or coated with asbestos to prevent 


the escape of heat, and the vessel is coveMd with a flat 
iron cover, which is generally in two halvesj. The steam 
enters the tubs at the side, below the falso ^bottom, and 
the exhausted liquor is drawn off through a valve con- 
nected to the bottom of the vat. In some milis the liquor 
is not drawn off after each boiling, but the boiled paper 
is hoisted from the vat as before desci'ibed, and the liquor 
strengthened by the addition of from 10 to 20 lbs. of 
soda-*ash for each 100 lbs. of the paper to be next boiled. 
Paper that is thickly coated with printing ink requires an 
extra dose of soda-ash. The boiling is continued for twelve 
to twenty-four hours according to the nature and condi- 
tion of the waste paper under treatment. 

Waste papers are frequently boiled, after dusting, in 
revolving boilers, in a solution of soda-ash or caustic soda, 
but it not unfrequently happens that some portions of 
the material become so agglomerated or half pulped during 
the boiling that the alkali fails to reach all the ink, and 
as this cannot be removed by the after processes of washing 
and breaking, it remains in the body of the pulp and 
necessarily forms a constituent part of the paper to be 
produced from it. The mass, when discharged from the 
boiler and drained is then conveyed to the washing-engine, 
in which it becomes broken and freed from alkali and so 
much of the ink as may have been dissolved or loosened, 
and it is af terwards treated in the beater and mixed with 
varying portions of other paper stock, according to the 
quality of paper to be produced. In some milis the boiled 
waste paper is disintegrated after boiling, by means of the 
edge-runner (Fig. 19). 

Uyan's Frocess for Treating Waste Paper. — The fol- 
lowing process for treating waste paper so as to produce a 
" first-class clean paper " therefrom, was patented by Mr. 
J. T. Byan, of Ohio. The waste paper is first passed 
through a duster in the usual way, all thick oíd books 
being previously torn apart to sepárate the leaves. The 
papers are then boiled in a hot alkaline liquor without 
pulping them, whereby the alkali acts on the surfaces of 


the papers, and dissolves of£, carrying away all the ink 
ínto the liquor. The papers, which are still in sheet form, 
are then drained as f ree as convenient from the alkaline 
liquor, and are next washed in the washing-engine, which 
leaves the material períectly clean. It is then pulped in 
the beating-engine ; and it is claimed that it can be 
formed into first-class paper without the addition of any 
new or expensive paper stock. The details of the process 
are thus given by the patentee : "Into a bucking-keir put 
a soda-ash solution having a density of 5 o B., at 160° F., 
put in the stock, and shower for eight hours at a 
temperature of 160° F., without pulping the paper, 
then lift and drain, and cleanse well in the washing- 
engine ; then pulp and form into paper. As the draining 
will always be imperfect, each charge removed will carry 
away some of the soda-ash solution, and leave the re- 
mainder of impaired strength. After each drainage add 
water to make up for loss in quantity of the solution, and 
add enough soda-ash solution at a density of 13° B., 
to bring all the liquor up to 5 o B. at 160° F. In about 
eighteen working days the liquor will have accumu- 
lated considerable ink and other matter. Then blow 
one half of the liquor, and restore the quantity for 
proper working. None of the soda-ash solution is wasted, 
except such as falls to drain and what is blown out as last 
mentioned." In carrying out this process every care 
must be taken to guará against pulping before the alkali 
is washed out. 


Bleaching Operation. — Sour Bleaching. — Bleaching with Chloride of 
Lime. — Donkin's Bleach Mixer. — Bleaching with Chlorine Gas 
(Glaser's Process). — Electrolytic Bleaching (C. Watt's Process). — 
Iíermite's Process. — Andreoli's Process. — Thompson's Process. — 
Lunge's Process. — Zinc Bleach Liquor. — Aluna Bleach Liquor. — 
New Method of Bleaching. 

Bleaching Operation. — The half- stuff treated in the 
breaking-engine is run into the potcher, and the water it 
contains is lif ted out as far as practicable by the washer ; 
the spent liquor from the presses or drainers is then run 
in in lieu of water, and as much fresh bleaching-liquor as 
may be required is then measured in, and in from two to 
six hours the pulp becomes perfectly white. " However 
well managed a mili may be," says Mr. Arnot, "it is 
scarcely possible to avoid having a small residuo of unused 
chlorine in the liquid which drains from the bleaching 
stuff." The rule, therefore, is to use this liquor in the 
way above indicated, by which the unexhausted chlorine, 
operating upon fresh half- stuff, becomes available, and is, 
therefore, not wasted. "That as little of this residual 
chlorine as possible may remain in the stuff," Mr. Arnot 
further observes, "when put into the beating-engine, 
powerful hydraulic presses are employed to compress the 
stuff and squeeze out the liquid. These presses should be 
large enough to contain easily the whole contents of a 
poaching-engine, and of unexceptional workmanship. The 
perforated lining especially should be carefully prepared 
and properly secured. I have seen much trouble from 
negligent workmanship in this respect. Recently I ex- 


amined a number of samples of press drainings, and 
found the unexhausted chlorine to vary very much — from 
a few grains of bleaching powder per gallón to about one 

Sometimes it is the practice to partly fill the potcher 
with water, and the engine being set in motion, the half- 
stuff is gradually introduced until the full charge has 
been given, and the stuif is then washed for some time, 
af ter which the drum-washer is raised, and the bleaching 
liquor then run in, care being taken that the necessary 
quantity is not exceeded, otherwise the fibre will suffer 
injury from the chemical action of the bleaching agent. 
When vitriol is employed to libérate the hypochlorous 
acid, the vitriol, previously diluted with water, should be 
placed in a small lead-lined tank in such a position that 
the acid liquor may slowly trickle into the engine at the 
rate of 1 Ib. of sulphuric acid in twenty minutes. As 
soon as the bleaching is complete the stuff is emptied into 
large stone chests, each of which will hold the contents of 
two engines. On the bottom of these chests are perf orated 
zinc drainers, while a similar drainer runs up the back of 
each chest. The bleached stuff is allowed to remain as 
long as may be convenient in these chests, after which it 
is removed to the beating or refining engines. In some 
milis the bleaching is effected in the breaking-engine, 
while at other milis the operation is performed in the 

In bleaching it is considered to be more advantageous 
to employ moderately strong liquors rather than weaker 
ones, inasmuch as the object is effected in less time than 
Avhen weaker liquors are employed. An extreme in the 
opposite direction, however, must be avoided, since a very 
strong bleach will inevitably cause injury to the fibre. 
Sometimes the potchers are fitfcecl with steam-pipes, in 
order that the diluted bleaching liquor may be heated, if 
required, to facilitate the operation. If the temperature 
be raised too high, however, the effect upon the fibre will 
be at least as injurious as if too strong a bleach were 


employed. It must also be borne m mind that in either 
case, after the pulp has been bleached and the liquor 
allowed to run orí, the mass has to remain sorne time — 
even if pressed to remove as much of the liquor as possible 
— in direct contact with the producís resulting from the 
deconiposition, and probably some undecomposed hypo- 
chlorite also, which will continué their chemical action 
upon j¡he fibre until removed by washing, or neutralised 
by one or other of the agents employed for the purpose. 

Sour Bleaching. — When the bleaching liquor, after 
acting upon the half-stuff for some time, has become 
partially exhausted, dilute sulphuric acid — about one part 
acid to fif teen parts of water — is added, which, by liberating 
hypochlorous acid, hastens the bleaching considerably, and 
Avhen the chemical action resulting from this treatment is 
nearly complete, the spent liquor is allowed to drain away, 
and fresh bleaching liquor is introduced, the strength 
being regulated by the progress made in the first case, 
which will depend upon the character of the fibre treated. 
In the second application of the bleach no acid is used. 
When sulphuric acid is added to the bleaching liquor, as 
above, the process is termed sour bleaching. Sometimes 
hydrochloric acid is used for this purpose, but in either 
case it is necessary to avoid employing the acid in too 
concentrated a state, or in too great a quantity, otherwise 
free chlorine will be liberated, which, besides being in- 
jurious to the health of the workmen and the surrounding 
machinery, also involves loss, while the colour and strength 
of the fibre itself will also be impaired. In some milis 
the bleaching is effected in the beating-engine, the bleach- 
ing liquor being pumped in while the machine is in 

Respecting the time which the bleaching operation 
should occupy, there appears to be some difference of 
opinión, or, at all events, the practice seems to vary in 
different milis, but there is, no doubt, an advantage, so 
far as ultímate yield is concerned, in moderately slow 
bleaching at a modérate temperature, inasmuch as there 



is less risk of chemical action upon tlie cellulose itself 
than wlien strong liquors are used, at a higher tempera- 
ture, with a view to liasteii the operation and economise 
tlie bleaching powder. 

Bleaching with Chloride of Lime {Preparation of the 
Bleaching Liquor). — Chloride of lime, or hypochlorite of 
lime, commonly called bleaching powder, when well pre- 
pared, contains from 32 to 35 per cent, of active chlorine. 
Being readily decomposed by the air, and also by heat, 
this substance should always be stored in a cool and dry 

Fig. 20. 

place until required for use. A solution of bleaching 
powder is generally prepared in large tanks lined with 
lead, which are provided with agitators or stirrers, so 
that the powder, when added to the water, may be freely 
diffused, and its active material dissolved in the liquid. 
A machine, or " bleach-mixer," manufactured by Messrs. 
Bryan Donkin and Co., of Bermondsey, is shown in 
Fig. 20, which is so constructed that the strong bleach 
liquor does not destroy it. The device for agitating 
the contents of the tank explains the principie of the 
machine. To prepare the bleaching liquor, about \ Ib. 


of cMoride of lime to each gallón of water is used, 
which yields a liquor at about 6 o T. When the re- 
quired quantity of bleaching powder and water have 
been introduced into the mixer and sufficiently agitated, 
tbe vessel is allowed to rest until the residue, which chiefly 
consists of f ree lime and its carbonate, has subsided, when 
the clear liquor may be run off for use. When all the 
olear "liquor has been drawn off the residue should be 
washed with water, and after again settling, the wash- 
iug water run off, and fresh water added, these wash- 
ings being repeated as often as necessary to remove the 
last traces of the "bleach," as it is technically called. 
The washing waters may be used in lieu of water in the 
preparation of fresh bleaching liquors. In some milis 
the bleaching powder is mixed with from 2 to 3 times its 
weight of water ; the mixture is then well agitated and 
the residue afterwards allowed to settle, the clear solution 
being afterwards drawn off and the residue then washed 
as before. In either case the residual matter is afterwards 
well drained and then cast aside. The bleaching liquor is 
stored in large tanks ready for use, from which it is with- 
drawn as required by means of a syphon or otherwise. 

Bleaching with Chlorine Gas (Glaser's Process). — This 
method of bleaching is not so much adopted in England as 
formerly, but has found much favour in Germany ; in- 
deed, within the past few years, namely, in March 3rd, 
1880, a process was introduced by Mr. F. Cari Glaser for 
treating straw, in which, after boiling with caustic soda as 
usual, the pulp is bleached by the action of chlorine gas. 
The straw, after being separated from weeds by a slight 
or superficial picking, is cut into pieces of from ^ to 
§ of an inch in length. The cut straw is then placed in 
a rotary boiler for about four hours, at a pressure of about 
4 to 4|- atmospheres, in a solution composed of 29 lbs. 
of caustic soda at 71°, and 48 lbs. of calcined soda at 90°, 
rendered caustic, for every 220 lbs. of straw. After boil- 
ing, the dirty ley is drawn off, and the boiled straw sub- 
jected to two washings with water. It is then conveyed 


to the washing-engine, where ít is washed for an hour ; 
the drum of the machine should have a sieve or sif ter, the 
apertures of which are about 60 to the square inch. The 
washed straw is next dried by centrifugal forcé in a hydro- 
extractor, until it contains about 70 per cent, of water, 
which is necessary for the action of the chlorine gas. To 
effect this, so as to obtain not very solid or cióse cakes of 
straw, the holes of the wire of the hydro-extractor should 
not be more than 50 to the square inch. The cakes of 
straw thus formed are then exposed to the action of 
chlorine in leaden chambers of the ordinary kind, in which 
they are placed in layers upon hurdles, or upon shelves. 
If the chlorine is produced by hydrochloric acid, for every 
220 lbs. of unboiled straw, 51¿ lbs. of the acid at 20° B*., 
and a corresponding quantity of 70 per cent, peroxide of 
manganese are used. After the bleaching operation, the 
acid formed is removed by washing in a washing-engine. 
If a complete reduction of the fibres has not been effected 
by the bleaching, this may be completed by the aid of 
well-known machines, and either before or subsequent to 
the after-bleaching there is used for 220 lbs. of straw 
about 4J lbs. of chloride of lime, at 35° [per cent. ?] The 
patentee then givesthe following explanation : — "As pine 
wood or fir is chemically f reed from its colouring principie 
and transformed into fibres as well as cellulose, the object 
of the intense action of the chlorine is to destroy the mu- 
cilage of the straw, as well as the incrusting matters 
which have not been destroyed by the boiling with caustic 
soda, and consequently to strip or expose and open the 
fibres." It will be readily seen that this process bears a 
cióse resemblance to Mr. C. Watt's wood-pulp process. 

Electrolytic Bleaching [C. Watt, Jun.'s, Process). — 
At the present time, when the means of obtaining the 
electric current for practica! purposes in the arts have 
so far exceeded that which would have been deemed 
probable some forty years since, we find- that many 
ingenious processes, which were found to be uirpractical 
at that time from the want of cheap electrical power, 



ha ve since reappeared in the forra of patented inven- 
tions, which would seera to possess every merit — but 

So long ago as September 25th, 1851, the author's bro- 
ther, Mr. Charles Watt, obtained a patent for, amongst 
other claims, decomposing chlorides of sodium and potas- 
sium, and of the metáis of the alkaline earths into hypo- 
chlorifces by electricity. It niay be well to make a f ew 
extracts here from his specification in order that some of 
the snbsequent patents, to which we shall refer, may be 
traced to what may, perhaps, be considered their trae 
origin. In the specification in question, the inventor 
says : — " The third part of my invention consists of amode 
of converting chlorides of potassium and sodium, and of 
the metáis of the alkaline earths, into hypochlorites and 
chlorates, by means of a succession of decompositions in 
the solution of the salt operated upon, when induced by 

the agency of electricity Electricity first decom- 

poses the chloride, the chlorine being eliminated at one of 
the electrodes, and the alkaline or earthy metallic base 

at the other electrode The liberated chlorine will, 

when it is set free, combine with a portion of alkali or 
alkaline earth in the solution, and a hypochlorite will be 
formed. The hypochlorite thus formed. will, by the con- 
tinued action of heat, be resolved partly into a chlorate of 
the alkali or alkaline earth, and partly into a chloride of 
the metallic base, and the chloride will again be subjected 
to decomposition, and a hypochlorite formed. . . . If I 
desire to produce a hypochlorite of the alkali or earth, I 
merely keep the vessel warm . . . and continué the pro- 
cess until as much of the saline matter has been con verted 
into a hypochlorite as may be required for the purpose to 
which the solution is to be applied. This mode of form- 
ing a hypochlorite of the alkalies and alkaline earths may 
be used for preparing a bath for the purpose of bleaching 
various kinds of goods, and the bath may be strengthened 
[recuperated] from time to time by the action of the 
electric current." 


Tbus it will be seen tbat tbis specification clearly de- 
scribed a process by wbicb tbe cblorides of sodium and 
potassium, and of tbe metáis of tbe alkaline eartbs (cblo- 
ride of magnesium, for example), may be con verted into 
bypocblorites by electrolysis, and tbe bypocblorite solu- 
tion obtained used for tbe purposes of bleacbing. It would 
appear difficult to conceive bow any subsequent patent 
for accomplisbing tbe same tbing, and using essentially 
tbe same means, can claim originality in tbe face of sucb 
" prior publication " as was eífected by tbe usual " Blue- 
book," wbicb any person can buy for eigbtpence. 

Hermite's Process — Tbe following description of tbis 
process bas been furnisbed by tbe engineers engaged in 
connection witb tbe process to tbe Paper Trade Review : — 
" Briefly described, tbe Hermite process consists in manu- 
f acturing a solution of bigb bleacbing power by electro- 
lysing an aqueous solution of magnesium cbloride. Tbe 
salt is decomposed by tbe current at the same time as tbe 
water. Tbe nascent cblorine, liberated from tbe magne- 
sium cbloride, and tbe nascent oxygen, liberated from tbe 
water, unite at tbe positive pole, and produce an unstable 
oxygen compound of cblorine of very bigb bleacbing 
power. Tbe bydrogen and magnesium go to tbe negative 
pole ; tbis last decomposes tbe water and f orms magne- 
sium oxide, wbilst tbe bydrogen is disengaged. If in tbis 
liquid coloured vegetable fibre is introduced, tbe oxygen 
compound acts on tbe colouring matter, oxidising it. 
Cblorine combines witb tbe bydrogen to f orm bydrocbloric 
acid, wbicb finding itself in tbe presence of magnesium in 
tbe liquid combines witb it, and forms tbe initial cbloride 
of magnesium." 

Axidreoli's Process. — Tbis process consists, avowedly, 
in bleacbing pulps " by means of bypocblorite of sodium, 
produced by electrolytical decomposition of a solution of 
cbloride of sodium." In carrying out bis process, M. An- 
dreoli uses as an electrolyte " concentrated or non-concen- 
trated sea- water, or a solution of cbloride of sodium, tbe 
specific gravity of wbicb varies according to tbe quality 


and nature of the materials to be treated. Generally the 
solution to be electrolysed works better with a density of 
8 o to 12° B., but although salt is cheap, and the solution 
when exhausted may be regenerated by passing an electric 
current, I always endeavour to have when possible (sic) a 
weak solution, and with some kinds of pulp an electrolyte 
having the density of sea-water (3 o B.) is sufnciently strong 
to bleach." 

The foregoing are the only electrolytic processes for 
bleaching fibres that need recording, and we fancy there 
will be little difnculty in tracing the resemblance between 
the two latter and the process of Mr. C. Watt. 

Thompson's Process. — This process, for which a patent 
was obtained on February 3rd, 1883, may be thus briefly 
described : — In bleaching linen f abrios the material is boiled 
for about three hours in a solution of cyanide of potassium 
or sodium — about half an ounce of the salt to each gallón 
of water — to remove the resinous matter from the fibre, so 
that the cellulose may be exposed to the action of the 
bleach. The fabric is then washed, and again boiled for 
three hours more in a similar solution, and af ter being 
again washed is ready for bleaching. With cotton the 
preliminary boiling is not necessary, unless the material 
is greasy, in which case a solution of half the strength 
and two hours' boiling is sufficient. In ordinary cases 
cotton is not boiled at all, but is simply washed in cold 
water and squeezed. In bleaching, all vegetable fibres are 
treated in the same way, the only difference being in 
point of time. The cotton or linen, af ter being treated as 
described, is then piled somewhat loosely in an air-tight 
vessel, 9 lbs. of cloth to the cubic foot of space being con- 
sidered sufficient. The vessel is then filled with a weak 
solution of bleaching liquor, consisting of about one ounce 
of dry bleaching powder to each gallón of water. " After 
the vessel has been filled, the liquor is immediately run 
out, and is replaced by an atmosphere of carbonic acid, 
which quickly liberates the chlorine on the fibre, and thus 
decomposes the water, uniting with the hydrogen and 



liberating the oxygen, the result of which is to bleach the 
fibre or fabric. In about an hour the whole of the bleach- 
ing liquor m the fibre will have been thus decomposed, 
and this operation must be repeated irntil the material is 
of the proper whiteness to be withdrawn from the action 
of the chlorine. The material is then washed and squeezed. 
Chlorine, however, always leaves these materials of a 
yellowish white." To remove this tint, the material is 
passed through a solution of oxalic acid — about 2 oz. to 
the gallón — squeezed as it passes out of this solution, and 
then passed through another solution made by dissolving 
\ grain of triethyl rose aniline to the gallón of water, or 
20 grains of Índigo, as may be preferred. To this solution 
oxalic acid is added until it becomes of an opaque but bright 
turquoise blue. The material, after washing, is then white. 

The patent describes and illustrates the apparatus to be 
used in conjunction with certain parts of existing appara- 
tus used in bleaching. 

lunge's Process. — In this process acetic acid is used 
in place of hydrochloric or sulphuric acids, etc., to set free 
the chlorine or hypochlorous acid, in the ordinary method 
of bleaching with hypochlorite of lime, or bleaching 
powder, which, the inventor says, " combines all the ad- 
vantages of the materials formerly employed, without any 

of their drawbacks The price is no impediment, 

for a minimal quantity is sufncient, the same being re- 
generated over and over again. At first acetic acid and 
chloride of lime decompose into calcium acétate and free 
hypochlorous acid. In the bleaching process the latter 
yields its oxygen, hydrochloric acid being formed. The 
latter instantly acts upon the calcium acétate ; calcium 
chloride is formed and acetic acid is regenerated, which 
decomposes a fresh quantity of chloride of lime, and so 
forth. Consequently the smallest quantity of acetic acid 
suflices for splitting up any amount of chloride of lime. 
.... The hydrochloric acid formed is never present in 
the free state, as it instantly acts upon the calcium acétate. 
This is very important, since hydrochloric acid weakens 


the fibre by prolonged contact, whilst acetic acid is quite 
harmless. Since there are 110 insoluble calcium salts pre- 
sent, the operation of ' souring ' after bleaching is quite 
unnecessary ; this not rnerely saves tbe expense of acid, 
aud of tbe subsequent washing of tbe fabrics, but it also 
avoids tbe danger, especially present in tbe case of stout 
fabrics, of leaving some of tbe acid in tbe stuff, whicb 
concentrates on drying and weakens tbe fibre; it may 
also prove injurious in subsequent dyeing operations. 
But in tbe new process no free acid is present except 
acetic acid, wbicb bas no action upon fibre, even in its 
concentrated state and at a bigb temperature." 

Tbe acetic acid may be employed in various ways, in- 
cluding tbe following : — A small quantity of tbe acid may 
be added f rom tbe first to tbe bleacbing liquor ; or tbe 
fabric, after being treated in tbe ordinary way with a 
solution of tbe bleacbing powder, may be steeped, witbout 
previous wasbing, in water containing a little acetic acid ; 
or tbe fabric may be steeped in water acidulated with 
acetic acid, and bleacbing liquor afterwards run in slowly 
and gradually, witb continuous agitation in tbe usual way. 
In tbe case of bard water, or of impure bleacbing liquors, 
a good deal of tbe acetic acid would be consumed in 
neutralising tbe lime ; in tbis case, some bydrocbloric 01* 
sulpburic acid may be added, but only sufficient f or tbe 
purpose, so tbat no acid but bypocblorous or acetic acid 
exists in tbe free state. Tbe process is applicable to tbe 
bleacbing of vegetable fibres, wbetber spun or in tbe un- 
spun state, and for bleacbing paper pulp made from rags, 
wood, straw, esparto, etc. Besides acetic acid, any otber 
weak organic acid of an analogous nature may be used. 

Zinc Bleach Liquor. — Strong acids are often objection- 
able for liberating cblorine from bleacbing powder, and 
especially in bleacbing some classes of paper pulp. If a 
solution of sulpbate of zinc be added to one of bleacbing 
powder, sulpbate of lime is precipitated, and tbe zinc 
bypocblorite formed at once splits up into zinc oxide and 
a solution of free bypocblorous acid. Cbloride of zinc 


acts similarly ; for a saturated solution of zinc in hydro- 
chloric acid decomposes as much bleaching powder as half 
its weight of concentrated oil of vitriol. — Varrentrapp. 
Consequently zinc salts can be employed in place of 
sulphuric acid, and thus bleach the paper pulp very 
quickly. When this mixture is employed in bleaching 
pulp, the precipitated sulphate of lime resulting from the 
reaction and also the oxide of zinc formed, remain in the 
pulp, and serve as loading materials. 

Alum Bleach Licuor. — Orioli * recommended for use, 
in paper-mills especially, a bleach liquor made by decom- 
posing equivalent quantities of a solution of chloride of 
lime and sulphate of alumina, f ormerly known as Wihorís 
Bleach Liquor. Sulphate of lime is precipitated, and 
hypochlorite of aluminium remains in solution; this 
being a very unstable salt can be applied for bleaching 
without the addition of an acid, splitting up into alu- 
minium chloride and active oxygen. Consequently the 
liquid always remains neutral, and the difficulty caused 
by the obstínate retention of free acid in the fibre, by 
which it is strongly acted upon in drying, in this case 
does not exist. The aluminium chloride also acts as an 
antiseptic, so that the paper stock may be kept for many 
months without undergoing fermentation or other decom- 
position. The solution is allowed to act for about ten 
minutes in the engine. — Lunge. 

New Metliod of Bleaching. — Young's Paraffin Oil 
Company have recently introduced what they term an 
" intermediate oil for paper-making," to be used with 
alkali in the boiling of rags and esparto, for the purpose 
of increasing the bleaching power of the powder, and pro- 
ducing a softer pulp, at the same time having no smell. 
Several well- known paper-makers have tried, and speak 
favourably of it. The quantity of oil to be added to the 
caustic varies for different stock, but may be said to 
average about 1^- gallón per ton.f 

* Wagner's " Jahresb." 1860, p. 188. 
t Faper-Mahers' Monthly Journal, March 15th, 1889* 



Beating. — Mr. Dunbar's Observations on Beating. — Mr. Arnot on Beafc- 
ing Engines. — Mr. Wyatt on American Refining-Engines. — The 
Beating-Engine. — Forbes' Beating-Engine. — TJmpherston's Beating 
Engine. — Operation of Beating. — Test for Chlorine. — Blending. 

Beating. — One of the most important operations in 
the manufacture of first-class paper is that of beating, by 
which the half-stuff becomes reduced to a fine state of 
división, and the fibres which, in the condition of half- 
stuff, are more or less loosely held together in a clotted 
state, become separated, and are thus put into a condition 
in which they will intertwine with each other, orfelt, as it 
is termed, when submitted to the vibratory motion of the 
wire-cloth of the paper machine. The beating-engine, or 
beater, as it is commonly called, much resembles in con- 
struction the washing- and breaking-engine, but since it is 
required to still further reduce the pulp to a condition 
suitable for paper-making, the knives of this engine are 
more numerous and are made to revolve more rapidly. 
In this engine the half-stuff is cleansed from bleach, 
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid — whichever acid may 
have been used in the bleaching — chloride of calcium, and 
the various products resulting from the decomposition of 
the chloride of lime. In this engine, also, the loading, 
sizing, and colouring materials are worked up with the 
pulp, and the stuff fully prepared for its final transfer 
directto the paper-machine. Before describing the various 
forms of beating-engines which have been from time to 
time introduced, including some of the most recent types, 


to wbicb special attention will be drawn, we purpose 
quoting some observations of well-known experts in paper 
manufacture wbicb will be read witb interest, since tbey 
fully explain tbe iniportance tbat to tbe proper 
manipulatioii of tbe beating-engine for tbe production of 
paper of bigb quality. 

Mr. Dunbar's Observations on Beating.— Tbere is 
no operation of tbe paper-mill thafc requires more careful 
attention and experienced judgment tban tbat of beating, 
or refining, to bring tbe pulp to tbe iinest possible con- 
dition for paper-making ; in tbis department, Mr. Dunbar 
urges, "none but tborougbly efficient men sbould be 
employed, for it is bere tbat tbe paper is really made — 
tbat is, tbe quality of tbe paper produced at tbe paper- 
macbine will be in proportion to tbe treatment tbe ma- 
terial bas received ; and if tbe balf-stuff sent to tbe 
beating-engines is not subjected to judicious manipulation 
and careful preparation for tbe special paper to be made, 
all future doctoring will prove unsatisfactory." 

Mr. Arnot on Beating Bngines. — On tbis subject Mr. 
Arnot says : — "Upon tbe managementof tbe beating-engine 
tbe cbaracter of tbe paper produced largely depends. Wbat 
is wanted is not a mincing or grinding of tbe libre, but a 
drawing out or separation of tbe fibres one f rom anotber ; 
in fact, tbe ñame of tbe macbine indicates pretty accu- 
rately tbe nature of tbe action required — beating. Long, 
fine fibres can only be produced [obtained] by keeping tbe 
roll sligbtly up off tbe bed-plate, and giving it time to do 
tbe work. Sbarp action between tbe roll and tbe bed- 
plate will, no doubt, make speedy work of tbe fibre, but 
tbe result will be sbort partióles of fibre only, wbicb will 
not interlace to make a strong felt. Indeed, tbe action I 
refer to will reduce tbe long, strong fibre of linen to little 
better tban tbat of wood or straw. Practice and careful 
observation can alone make a good beater-man, and for 
tbe finer classes of paper none but careful, experienced 
men sbould be entrusted witb tbe management of tbe 
beating-engine. Sometimes tbe operation is conducted in 


two successive engines, tlie firsí being called the inter- 
medíate beater, but I have hitherto failed to see wherein 
the advantage of this system lies. The time usually occu- 
pied in beating esparto for printing-paper is about four 
hours, while for rags the time may vary from four to 
twelve hours, or even more." This, however, depends 
upon the nature of the rags themselves, and the purposes 
to which they are to be applied. 

Mr. Wyatt on American Refining-Engiiies. — Refer- 
ring to the engines adopted in America, Mr. Wyatt says : 
— " There are various modifications of the original Jordán, 
the principal ones being the Marshall, Jeffers, and im- 
proved Jordán ; but I gathered that experience proves 
the Jordán type to be the most practical and efficient 
in the end, and is one of the most generally used. One 
Jordán is required for each machine, refining all the 
stuff supplied to ít. The roll, or plug, runs from 350 to 
400 revolutions per minute, the horse-power consumed 
varying from 25 to 40 horse-power according to the work 
done, and an engine will do up to 1,000 lbs. of pmlp 
per hour. The time saved in the beating-engine by the 
use of the Jordán is just about one-third of what would 
otherwise be necessary, that is to say, pulp requiring 
otherwise six hours beating only takes four hours if 
finished in the Jordán. The half-beaten pulp is emptied 
into a stufí'-chest, and the Jordán is furnished with a small 
stuff-pump and service-box, just as at the paper-machine 
what the Jordán does not take flows baek again into the 
chest : the pulp from the Jordán is run into the ordi- 
nary machine stuff-chests. The finished pulp can be 
taken from the Jordán at three different levéis from the 
circumference of the roll, or plug. If the pulp is wanted 
\ free,' it is drawn from the bottom of the engine ; if 
wanted ' wet,' or well greased, it is drawn from the top ; 
and if médium from the centre." 

The Beating -Engine. — The ordinary form of beater 
consists of a cast-iron trough 13 feet 6 inches long X 6 feet 
6 inches wide, and the bottom is dish-shaped, so as to 


prevent tlie pulp f rom lodging, wbicb would inevitably 
be tlie case if tbe bottom were fíat, as tbe pulp would 
be apt to lodge in tbe angles formed by tbe junction of 
the bottom with tbe vertical walls of tbe trougb. Tbe 
iron trougb is fitted witb a cast-iron roll, 3 feet 6 
incbes x 3 feet 6 incbes, wbicb is provided witb 69 " roll- 
bars," or knives, arranged in 23 groups of 3 bars eacb ; 
tbis roll is suspended upon a malleable iron sbaft 
5 incbes in diameter, resting upon side levers ; suitable 
gearing is attacbed by wbicb tbe roll can be lifted or 
lowered at will, tbe action being uniformly equal on botb 
sides, by wbicb tbe knives of tbe roll are kept uniform 
witb tbose of tbe bed-plate beneatb. Tbe bed-plate, fur- 
nisbed witb 20 steel knives, of tbe same lengtb as tbe 
roll, is placed immediately beneatb tbe roll. Wben tbe 
knives of tbe bed-plate are straigbt tbey are fitted into 
tbe plate-box at an angle, but in some cases tbey are bent 
at a sligbt angle, wben tbey are termed elbow plates. 
Tbere bave been, bowever, many improvements in tbe 
beating-engine introduced of late years, some of wbicb 
are of considerable importance, and to some of tbese we 
will now direct attention. Altbougb our own manuf acturers 
bave introduced improvements in beaters wbicb bave been 
fully recognised by tbe trade, tbe American engineers 
bave not been bebindband in devising modifications 
wbicb appear to bave some important advantages. Tbe 
Jordán beater, wbicb bas been extensively adopted in 
tbe States, consists of a roll in tbe form of a truncated 
cone, furnisbed witb knives in tbe usual way ; tbis revolves 
in a box of a similar form, fitted witb knives in tbe direc- 
tion of its lengtb, but at sligbtly different angles. In 
tbis engine tbe stuff enters at tbe narrow end tbrougb 
a box baving an arrangement wbicb regulates its flow, 
and tbe pulp is discbarged by several openings in tbe 
cover at tbe wider end. In an engine invented by Mr. 
Kingsland tbere is a circular cbamber furnisbed witb 
knives covering its sides ; between tbis is a circular píate, 
also fitted witb knives, wbicb revolves. Tbe stuff enters 


through a pipe in the centre of one of the sides of the 
chamber, and flows out through an opening in the oppo- 
site side. 

Porbes' Beating Engine — This engine, an illustration 
of which is given in Fig. 21, is manufactured by Ber- 
trams, Limited, of St. Katherine's Works, Edinburgh. 
The engine has three chambers, two rolls, and a mixing 
wheel ; the rolls, only one of which is uncovered in the 

engraving, are fixed in the outer channels, and the mixing 
wheel is placed in the middle channel. By this arrange- 
ment the pulp flows alternately into the two outer chan- 
nels, and after passing through the rolls again it enters 
the centre channel at the opposite end. 

Umpherston's Beating Engine, — This engine, for 
which a patent was granted in 1880, has been successfully 
adopted at the Daily Chronicle and other milis, and pre- 
sents severa! important advantages, one of the chief being 



that it occupies mucli less ground space than ordinary 
beating-engines. Indeed, we have lieard it remarked of 
this engine that it will do double tlie aniount of work in 
tlie same ground space as the ordinary engine, and this, 
in some milis, would be a decided advantage. The con- 
struction of this beater, a drawing of which is shown in 
Fig. 22, is thus described by tbe patentee : — " In the 
common and almost universal form of engines used for 
preparing pulp for paper-making, tbe pulp travels hori- 
zontally in a trougb with semi-circular ends, and straight 

sides, partly divided longitudinally by a partition called 
tbe midfeatber, around which tbe pulp flows from tbe 
back of tbe roll to its front, wbere it passes under tbe roll 
and over tbe bottom working-plate, and is again delivered 
over tbe back fall to pass again round tbe midfeatber to 
tbe front of tbe roll. In tbe course of tbese repeated 
revolutions part of tbe pulp near tbe circumference of tbe 
tub bas mucb f artber to travel tban tbe part near tbe mid- 
featber, and consequently is not so often operated upon, 
and tbe pulp is thus unequally treated. As an improve- 
ment upon this form of tub, I make it so tbat tbe pulp 


passes from the back of tlie roll to its front through a 
longitudinal passage under the back fall, the pulp tbus 
moving as through an inverted syphon, the superincum- 
bent weight of the semi-fluid pulp, as delivered over the 
back fall of the roll, pressing it along this passage and 
upwards, to enter again in front of the roll. The roll a, 
bottom píate b, and the f orm of the back fall c, are similar 
to tho^e of ordinary engines, but the trough is formed 
with the passage d under the bottom píate b, so that the 
semi-fluid contents of the engine, in travelling from the 
back fall c to the front of the roll a, pass by means of the 
passage d under the bottom píate b in the direction indi- 
cated by the arrows,the superincumbent weight of the semi- 
fluid pulp, as it is delivered over the back fall c at the back 
of the roll a, pressing it along the under passage d and up- 
wards to the front of the roll a. The position of a drum- 
washer is shown at e, and at f is seen a section of the 
cross shaft for raising or lowering both ends of the roll a 
simultaneously ; g is the roll cover, which may be of any 
usual form. By this invention the semi-fluid pulp is 
acted upon in a more efíective manner, and its partióles are 
also more equally treated than has hitherto been the case." 

The beating-engines are usually driven from a sepárate 
engine, but Messrs. Bertrams have introduced a system of 
direct driving for these engines by which, it is said, there 
is a considerable saving in power. The accompanying 
engravings, Figs. 23 and 24, show a series of eight beaters, 
each carrying 800 lbs. of pulp, driven by one of their com- 
pound direct-driving steam- engines, and now being worked 
at the Forth Paper Mills. 

Operation of Beating. — Having referred to some of 
the more important improvements connected with the 
beating-engines, we will proceed to explain the opera- 
tion of beating as briefly as possible. The bleached 
half-stuff is removed from the tray of the press in 
caked masses, and in this condition is conveyed in trucks 
or boxes to the beating-engine. The first thing to 
be attended to is the removal of the last traces of chlorine 



f rom the pulp, which, if not effectually done, would cause 
injury to the size, and also corrode the strainer plates 

Fig. 23. 

and wire-gauze of the paper-machine. It is possible 
to wash out the chlorine by an abundant application of 

Fig. 24. 

puré water, but this method of removing the chlorine is 
very tedious and occupies a long time, while it also involves 
the use of enormous quantities of water — a serious consi- 


deration in sonie milis ; to this may be added the still more 
important fact that by the method of washing out the 
chlorine a considerable loss of fibre takes place. The plan 
most usually adopted is to neutralise the chlorine lef t in the 
pulp by the application of suitable chemical agents, whereby 
the chlorine is rendered inert. These agents, technically 
termed " antichlors," are sometimes objected to, however, 
although they are in themselves practically harmless so f ar 
as their action upon cellulose is concerned. Mr. Arnot, 
who has considered this subject very thoroughly, says : — 
" 1 do not think there is much in this objection, as those 
agents that are soluble pass through the wire of the 
machine almost completely, while those that are insoluble 
are in the finest possible state of división and pearly white. 
The chemical agent most largely used is hyposulphite of 
soda, but hyposulphite of lime is also employed, and 
those agents, known by the ñame of ' antichlor,' are put 
into the engine in such a quantity as will ensure the 
neutralisation of the whole of the chlorine. The pro- 
ducís of the reaction, when the soda salts are used, are 
chloride of sodium (common salt) and sulphate of soda 
(Glauber's salt), and, when the lime salt is used, chloride of 
calcium and sulphate of lime, the latter identical with the 
pearl hardening so well known as a loading agent." From 
this it will be seen that little or no harm can possibly 
occur either to the fibre or the metal work of the machine 
by the employment of the neutralising agents named, and 
when it is borne in mind that the simple washing of the 
pulp would occupy the beating-engine for a lengthened 
period and exhaust a considerable quantity of water — which, 
as we have said, would in some milis be a serious matter — 
the adoption of the neutralising method would undoubtedly 
have the preference. 

The engine, being partly filled with water, is set in 
motion, and the bleached haK-stuff introduced in small 
quantities at a time, each portion being allowed to become 
thoroughly mixed with the water before the next batch is 
added. The charging of the beater with half-stuff is kept 


up un til the mass becomes so thick that it will only just 
move in the trough under the action of the revolving roll. 
If the beater is of the older type, portions of the pulp are 
Hable to lodge in corners, to remove which the " beater- 
man " uses a wooden paddle, with which tool he also pushes 
the slowly moving pulp in the direction of the roll, espe- 
cially when the stiíf mass appears to move too slowly. 
At this stage the neutralisation of the chlorine in the 
pulp is effected, which is done by adding a solution of 
hyposulphite of soda, a little at a time, until the liquor 
ceases to redden blue litmus paper, strips of which 
should be dipped into the pulp every few minutes until 
the paper persistently retains its blue colour. This 
operation should be conducted with great care, so as to 
exactly neutralise th.e traces of chlorine without adding an 
excess of the hyposulphite of soda. Besides this salt, 
other substances are used as " antichlors," as, for example, 
hyposulphite of lime, which is prepared by boiling niilk of 
lime (slacked lime made into a thin mixture with water) 
and flour of sulphur in an iron vessel until the latter is 
dissolved, when, after cooling and settling, the resulting 
solution, which is of an orange-yellow colour, is ready for 
use. One great objection to the use of hyposulphite of 
lime, however, is that when decomposed by the chloride of 
lime remaining in the pulp sulphur is set free, which, 
mingling with pulp, will impart to it a yellow tint ; be- 
sides this, in passing over the drying cylinders of the 
machine the sulphur present in the paper may attract 
oxygen from the air, converting it into sulphuric acid, 
which must inevitably pro ve injurious to the manufactured 
paper. Sulphite of soda has also been used as an antichlor, 
and is said to be preferable to hyposulphite of soda,* inas- 
much as the latter salt is liable to decompose with the 
liberation of free acid, which is not the case with the 
sulphite of soda. 

Test for Chlorine. — Instead of relying solely upon the 
litmus paper test when applying the antichlor, the follow- 
* Sometimes also called thiosulphite of soda. 


ing test for chlorine may also be used with advantage : — 
Take 2 drachms (120 grains) of white starch, and make it 
into a paste with a little cold water ; then pour oyer it 
about balf a pint of boiling water, stirring briskly ; to this 
add 1 dracbm of iodide of potassium, and stir until dis- 
solved and well incorporated with the starch solution. 
Tbe mixture is then to be allowed to cool, when it is 
ready for use. A few drops of this mixture dropped 
upon a small sample of the pulp will indicate if any 
chlorine be present by the spot assuming a blue colour ; 
if such be not the case, the pulp may be considered f ree 
from chlorine. 

During the beating, the roll, which should make not less 
than 220 revolutions per minute, is lowered, a little at a 
time, so that the cutting edges of the bars and píate may 
be brought together gradually and equally until the pulp 
is reduced to the desired condition. The pulp is made 
long or short according to the quality of paper to be pro- 
duced ; news papers, which require strength, are made of 
long-fibred pulp, while writing paper, or paper of fine 
texture, is made of shorter pulp. The stuff should be 
what is called " mello wed " in the engine, which is effected 
by a judicious working of the roll, not lowering it sud- 
denly but gradually, and not much at one time, on the 
píate, until the pulp attains the fineness required. This is 
generally arrived at in about three and a half to four 
hours, though sometimes the beating of pulp from rags 
is continued for more than double that time. It should 
be added that if tbe cutting edges of the roll and píate 
are brought together suddenly and too closely, the fibre 
will be cut, and as a consequence the paper produced will 
be tender. 

Esparto, which, in the process of boiling becomes re- 
duced to such a sof t condition that the fibres may be readily 
separated by the fingers, does not require such excessive 
beating as rags ; indeed, the perfect disintegration of the 
fibres of esparto is practically accomplished in about half 
the time occupied by rags, and of ten much less, but this of 


course depends upon tlie nature of the esparto itself and 
upon the thoroughness of the boiling. Wood pulps also 
require but modérate beating, since the process of disin- 
tegration is generally pretty effectually accomplished by 
the processes to which the raw material is subjected in the 
course of manufacture into half- stuff, which is the condi- 
tion in which this paper material is furnished to the 

Blending. — To produce papers of the different qualities 
required by the trade, a system of blending is adopted, 
which may be effected — (1) by mixing the materials in the 
raw state, or the rags, previous to boiling ; and (2) blend- 
ing the half-stuffin the beating- engine. The latter method, 
however, is generally pref erred. Sometimes, also, pulps of 
different character are beaten separately and then mixed 
in the stuff-chests, where they are mixed as thoroughly as 
possible before passing on to the machine, but this method 
would be less likely to ensure a perfect mixture of the 
respective pulps than would be effected with proper care in 
the beater. The proportions of the several materials to be 
blended is also a matter of important consideration. In 
blending esparto with rag stuff, if the former be in excess 
it becomes reduced to the proper condition before the latter 
is sufnciently fine, which causes the rag fibre to appear in 
" knots and threads " in the manufactured paper. But if 
the rag stuff be allowed to predomínate, the beating is 
conducted as though no esparto were present, by which, 
while the rag stuff becomes reduced to the proper length 
of fibre, the esparto, which is still further reduced, in 
mingling with the longer fibre of the rags forms what is 
called a " cióse " paper. Mr. Dunbar, in his useful little 
work, " The Practical Paper-maker," furnishes a series of 
receipts for blending for high-class papers, as also the pro- 
portions of colouring matter to be used, which the reader 
will do well to consult. For news papers, esparto and straw 
pulps are generally used, in varying proportions according 
to the nature and quality of the esparto ; these proportions 
have to be regulated according to the judgment of the 


paper-maker, and vary greatly at different milis. A large 
quantity of sulphite and other wood pulps are also used, 
those coming from Scandinavia and Grermany being espe- 
cially suited to the requirements of the English manufac- 
turer. Mechanical wood pulp is also used in a modérate 
degree — sometimes up to 15 per cent., in some English 
mÜls, but it is said that in Grermany tbis paper stock is 
sometimes used to the extent of 90 per cent. 


Loading. — Sizing. — Frenen, Metliod of Preparing Engine Size. — Zinc 
Soaps in Sizing. — Colouring. — Animal or Tub-Sizing. — Preparation 
of Animal Size. — American Method of Sizing. — Machine-Sizing. — 
Double-sized Paper. — Mr. Wyatt's Remarks on Sizing. 

Loading. — The very finest qualities of paper are usually 
inade without tlie addition oi any loading, as it is called, 
but for niost otlier papers more or less loading material is 
added, according to the quality of paper to be produced. 
The loading material used for ordinary qualities is kaolin, 
or china clay, and for the better qualities sulphate of lime 
ovpearl hardening, as it is termed in the trade. China clay, 
as it occurs in commerce, is in the form of soft lumps and 
powder, is nearly white, and when rubbed between the 
finger and thumb should present no hard partióles of gritty 
matter. To prepare it for mixing with the pulp it is first 
worked up into a thin cream with water, which is usually 
done in a vessel furnished with an agitating arrangement 
by which the clay becomes intimately mixed with the 
water. The cream is then strained through a fine sieve 
to sepárate any impurities present, and is then allowed to 
flow into the beating-engine containing the stuff while in 
motion, by which it soon becomes mingled with the pulp. 
The proportion of china clay or other loading material 
which is to be introduced into the pulp depends upon the 
quality of the fibre and the requirements of the manufac- 
ttirer, some makers using less of the material than others. 
From 3 per cent, to 10 or 15 per cent, appears to be about 
the extreme range for employing the material as a neces- 

L OADING. — SIZING. 1 1 5 

sary ingredient in the production of various classes of 
paper, abo ve which figures the addition of loading material 
may be considered as an adulteration. Sometimes nearly 
twice the largest amount named is employed, no doubt to 
meet the exigences of keen competition — from foreign 
sources especially. 

One effect of the loading, whether it be china clay or 
sulphater of lime, is to, cióse the pores of the paper, 
whereby a smoother surface is obtained, while at the same 
time, if the material has been used in proportions suited 
to the quality of the fibre, and not in immoderate excess, 
a stronger paper is produced. A species of asbestos termed 
agalite has been introduced as a loading material, and since 
it has a fibrous texture, it blends with the fibres of the 
pulp, forming, as it were, a vegeto-mineral paper. It is 
stated that as much as 90 per cent, of the agalite used in 
the beating-engine enters into the manufactured paper, 
while not much more than half the china clay used is held 
by the pulp. 

Sizing. — " Engine sizing," as it is termed, consists in 
adding certain ingredients to the pulp while in the beating- 
engine. The materials generally used are alum and resin 
soap, in proportions suitable to the paper to be produced. 
Resin soap is formed by boiling ordinary resin in a 
jacketed pan such as is used by soapmakers for preparing 
small quantities of fancy or other soaps, with a solutionof 
soda crystals in the folio vving proportions : Resin, 16 lbs. ; 
soda crystals dissolved in water, 8 lbs. ; and the boiling is 
kept up for about two hours, or until a soap is produced 
which is perfectly soluble in water. The methocl of pre- 
paring this soap as conducted at the soapworks has been 
described in the author's work on soap-making,* p. 64, from 
which the following abstract is taken : "Put into a pan 
capable of holding about 12 gallons, 2\ gallons of fresh 
caustic soda ley at 30° B. Apply gentle heat, and when 

* " The Art of Soap-making." By Alexander Watt. London, Crosby 
Lockwood and Son, 4th edition, 1890. 


the ley begins to boil throw in, every few minutes, in 
small quantities at a time, finely powdered and sif ted resin 
until 37 lbs. have been introduced. The mixture must be 
well stirred the whole time to prevent the resin from 
' clogging ' and adhering to the pan. It is important to 
modérate the heat, as the resin soap has a great tendency 
to expand and an excess of heat would cause it to boil 
over. The heat, however, must be kept to near the boil- 
ing point, otherwise the mass will become thick and of a 
very dark colour. When kept at near the boiling point it 
is always clear and its colour of a reddish yellow. If, 
during the boiling, the resin soap rises and threatens to 
overflow, the heat must be checked by throwing in a little 
cold water, only using sufficient to effect this object. It 
is absolutely necessary to stir the mass continually, other- 
wise the resin will agglomerate in masses and thus prevent 
the alkali from acting freely upon it. The boiling takes 
about two hours, when the soap is run into an iron frame 
and allowed to cool. It is very important that the resin 
used is freed from partióles of wood, straw, etc., for which 
purpose it should be passed through a tolerably fine 

Respecting the preparation of resin soap, Davis says : — 
" The proportion of resin used to each pound of soda ash 
varies in different milis, 3, 4, or even 5 lbs. of resin being 
used to each pound of soda ash. The proportion of resin, 
soda ash, and water, can be best determined by practical 
experience, as no prescription could be devised which 
would be suitable to every case. M. d'Arcet, who modi- 
fied the proportions recommended by M. Bracconot, 
recommends for the preparation of resin soap — 

Powdered resin 4*80 parts. 

Soda crystals at 80° (French alkalimeter) . . 2*22 „ 
Water 100 „ 

Theoretically speaking, only 2*45 parts of alum would be 
required to precipitate the resin ; but the waters, which 
are almost always calcareous, neutralise part of the alum. 


Crystals of soda are nmch more expensive than soda ash, 
but on accomit of their greater purity they are sometimes 
pref erred to tlie latter. At the present day tlie resin soap 
is preferably made by dissolving ordinary resin with a 
solution of carbonate of soda under boiling heat in a steam- 
jacketed boiler, the class of paper to be made governing 
the quantity of resin to be employed. The boiling usually 
requiresufrom two to eight hours, according to the rela- 
tive proportions of soda ash and resin used — the greater 
the proportion of soda nsed the less time is required for 
boiling — the process being completed when a sample of the 
soap formed is completely soluble in water. . . . About 
3 lbs. of resin to 1 Ib. of soda is the usual proportion. The 
resin soap is cooled af ter boiling by running it into iron 
tanks, where it is allowed to settle, the soap forming a 
dense syrup-like mass, and the colouring matters and 
other admixtures of the resin rising to the top are easily 
removed. It is important to run off the mother liquor 
(ley) containing the excess of alkali, for when the soap is 
used it consumes the alum to neutralise it." 

When the impurities and ley have been removed the 
soap is dissolved in water, and if, from imperfect boiling, 
a portion of the resin isfound not to have been saponitied, 
a small quantity of a strong solution of soda crystals is 
added to the water used for dissolving the soap. 

Where starch is used for stiif ening purposes, the soap is 
mixed with a quantity of starch paste in the proportion of 
\\ part of starch to 1 part of resin soap. Some manufac- 
turers, Mr. Davis states, mix the starch paste with the 
kaolin in lieu of mixing it with the resin soap. In either 
case the materials should be thoroughly strained before 
being added to the pulp. From 3 to 4 lbs. of the mixture 
of resin soap and starch paste to each 100 lbs. of dry pulp 
are about the proportions in which the size is generally 
used, but the quantity added to the pulp in the beater de- 
pends upon whether the paper is to be soft-sized or hard- 

Sizing is chiefly applied to papers which are to be writ- 


ten upon with ordinary inks, and also, with a few excep - 
tions, to printing papers, the object being to cióse the 
peres of the paper and. render it non-absorbent, by which 
the spreading or running of the ink is effectually pre- 
vented. While the finest lines may be written upon a 
well-sized paper (as ordinary writing paper, for example) 
without spreading in the least degree, a similar stroke of 
the pen upon blotting paper, tissue, or unsized printing 
paper would spread in all directions, owing to the highly 
absorptive property of the cellulose. 

The sizing of the pulp is conducted as follows : — After 
the loading material has been introduced and well mixed, 
the resin soap, previously dissolved in water, a little 
carbonate of soda being sometimes added, is mixed with a 
paste of starch prepared by dissolving starch in boiling 
water, and the mixture of soap and starch is then passed 
through a fine sieve to keep back any partióles or lumps 
that may be present. The proportion of the materials 
used in sizing vary at the different milis, each manuf acturer 
having f ormulae of his own ; about 1 part of resin size to 
3 of starch paste, and, say, from 9 to 12 lbs. of the mix- 
ture, may be used for 300 lbs. of pulp ; and, if preferred, 
the respective ingredients may be put into the engine 
separately, a method adopted at some milis. Some manu- 
facturéis of the finest papers, instead of dissolving the 
starch in hot water, make it into a thin paste with cold 
water, in which condition it is introduced into the pulp, 
the object being to impart to the paper a particular 
feeling to the touch which is not obtainable by other 

The mixture of resin size and starch paste, with or 
without the addition of water, is added to the pulp in the 
beater, in which the pulp is circulating, and the engine 
allowed to run until the materials are well incorporated in 
the pulp. At this stage a solution of alum (about 28 to 
30 lbs. íor 300 lbs. of pulp), or of sulphate of alumina,*is 
introduced, which causes the resin soap to become " sepa- 
* Sometimes cailed " concentrated alum," "pearl alum," etc. 


rated," the sulphuric acid of the alum uniting witli tlie 
alkali of the soap and setting the resin and alumina free 
in the form of minute partióles ; the resin in the subse- 
quent drying on the calenders becomes fused, as it were, 
and thus cements the fibres and alumina together, at the 
same time rendering them non-absorbent and improved in 
whiteness by the precipitated alumina. Sometimes ordi- 
nary soap is added to the resin soap, which is said to 
imparf a higher finish to the paper in the operation of 

The so-called " concentrated alum," which contains 
a higher percentage of sulphate of alumina than the 
orystallised alum, is considered the most economical in use, 
being proportionately cheaper, and the variety known as 
"pearl alum" is specially recommended. "Aiuniinous 
cake " is another preparation which has found favour in 
many milis, but since it sometimes contains a large excess 
of free sulphuric acid it requires to be used with caution, 
since this acid, although it will brighten the colour of 
some aniline dyes, will discharge the colour from others, 
while at the same time it may injuriously affect the brass- 
wire cloths of the paper machine. The alum solution 
should be prepared in a lead-lined tank, fitted with a steam 
pipe for heating the contents when required. 

The proportions of the materials used in sizing differ 
considerably in different milis, but the following may be 
taken as an average for common writing and printing 
papers : — 

Per 100 parts of dried pulp 10 to 12 parts of resin. 
,, ,, ,, 20 „ 30 ,, starch. 

„ ,, „ 10 „ 12 „ alum. 

To the sizing solution is generally added from 30 to 50 
parts of kaolin. When a colour is present on which alum 
would have a prejudicial efíect this is usually replaced by 
about one-third of its weight of sulphate of zinc. Many 
mineral substances have from time to time been added to 
paper stock, principally to increase its weight, and in 
1858 Sholl took out a patent for adding carbonate of lime, 


a substance whicb, bowever, liad long been fraudulently 
used in order to increase tbe weigbt, but be found it to 
bave the proj>erty of fixing tbe ink in tbe pores of the 
paper, thus rendering it immovable. Tbe only useful 
addition is kaolín, or some similar aluminous compound, as 
it attacbes itself to tbe fibre, and, while giving tbe required 
opacity and a good surface, takes botb printing and writing 
ink well, and bas tbe advantage, from a manufacturer's 
point of view, of increasing tbe weight. It bas been 
proposed tbat small quantities of glycerine be added to 
tbe pulp, in order to give tbe paper greater flexibility, and 
especially to give copying-paper tbe quality of taking up 
colour readily.* 

Frencli Method of Freparing Engine Size. — Tbirteen 
pails of water are boiled in a copper-jacketed pan capable 
of bolding about 150 gallons ; 90 lbs. of soda crystals are 
tben introdnced and allowed to dissolve, wben 200 lbs. of 
fmely-powdered resin are gradually introduced, witb con- 
stant stirring, and tbe boiling is sustained for about two 
bours after tbe last portion of resin bas been added. A 
furtber addition of water is now made by putting in five 
pails of cold water, and tbe water is tben boiled for an 
bour and a balf longer. Tbe resin soap is tben transí erred 
to stock-cbests, in wbicb it is allowed to remain for ten 
days or longer, fresb batcbes being prepared in rotation, 
to meet tbe requirernents of tbe mili. 

To determine wbetber an excess of resin soap or of 
alum bas been added to tbe pulp, red and blue litmus 
papers sbould be employed, tbe former turning blue if an 
excess of resin soap be present, and tbe latter red wben 
alum or sulpbate of alumina is in excess. For uncoloured 
papers tbe aluminous material sbould be added until tbe 
pulp becomes faintly acid, wbicb will be indicated by tbe 
blue litmus paper turning sligbtly red wben immersed in 
tbe pulp. 

Besides resin soap, various substances bave been pro- 
posed as sizing materials, including wax dissolved in a 
* Muspratt's " Chemistry Applied to the Arts." 


strong solution of caustic soda and precipitated with alum, 
but the cost would be an objection to the use of this mate- 
rial except for the highest classes of paper. It is stated 
that 12 lbs. of gum tragacanth to each 500 lbs. of resin bas 
been used in preparing some kinds of engine-sized papers, 
and is said to impart to tbem an appearance equal to that 
of tub-sized papers. 

Zinc Soaps in Sizing. — According to a paragraph in the 
Papermakers' Monthly Journal, a soniewhat novel method 
of sizing is employed in Grermany, which consists in the pre- 
cipitation in the stock of zinc soaps. Cottonseed oil soap 
or Castille soap is worked up in the engine with the stuft', 
and after it has become well mixed with the pulp a solu- 
tion of sulphate of zinc is added, which results in the 
formation of a white and heavy zinc soap, which is inso- 
luble, and adheres well to the fibres. The weight and 
whiteness of the zinc soap are the main points in favour 
of this method, which is said to yield good results. 

Colouring. — The pulp, after passing through the various 
processes described, although apparently white, invariably 
presents a yellow tinge when converted into paper. To 
obvíate this it is usual to " kill " the yellow tint by adding 
to the pulp small quantities of blue and pink colouring 
matters. The blue colours generally used are ultramarine, 
smalts, and various aniline blues, and the pinks are usually 
prepared from cochineal, either in a liquid form or as 
" lakes " (compounds of cochineal and alumina) or aniline 
dyes, the former being preferable, as it is not injuriously 
afíected by the alum used in sizing. The ultramarine 
should be of good quality, otherwise it will become decom- 
posed, and its colouring property destroyed by the action 
of the alum, but more especially so if the alum contains 
an excess of free acid. Smalts blue, which is a kind of 
coloured glass, is not afíected by acids. In preparing the 
colouring matters for mixing with the pulp they must 
first be mixed with water, and the liquid should then be 
strained, to keep back any solid partióles that may be pre- 
sent in the material. Aniline blues should be dissolved 


in hot water, or alcohol, and then diluted. Samples of the 
pulp are examined from time to time until the desired 
effect is produced, which the practised eye of the beater- 
man can readily determine. 

Animal or Tub-sizing. — Another process of sizing, 
termed "animal-sizing," "tub-sizing," or " surface- sizing," 
is also adopted in the manufacture of certain classes of 
paper, and is either accomplished by hand or on the ma- 
chine. The f ormer method having been elsewhere described 
(p. 132) we Avill now describe the operation of sizing on the 
machine, to which the term tub-sizing is also applied. The 
size employed, which is prepared from what are called 
"glue pieces," or clippings of "limed" and unhaired 
skins of animáis, requires to be as colourless as possible, in 
order that the colour of the paper may not be injuriously 
affected by it. 

Freparation of Animal Size. — This operation is gener- 
ally conducted at the mili, the materials from which the 
size is produced being the cuttings or parings of animal 
skins and hides, or pelU, which have undergone the pro- 
cesses of "liming" and unhairing preparatory to being 
tanned. The cuttings, or potes, commonly called " glue 
pieces," are first soaked in a mixture of lime and water, 
placed in large tubs for several days, after which they are 
put into a wooden cylinder, or drum, five or six feet in 
diameter, and about ten feet in length, which revolves upon 
a horizontal shaft, which, being hollow, admits the passage 
of water to the interior of the drum. The drum is per- 
forated, and revolves in a large tank, while a continuous 
stream of water is allowed to pass through it, and the 
dirty water escapes through the perforations in the drum. 
When the cuttings are sufficiently cleansed in this way, 
they are transferred to an iron copper, furnished with a 
false bottom and steam-pipe, or a jacketed pan. The 
cuttings are next covered with water ; steam is then turned 
on, and the liquid brought to a temperature below boiling 
point, or say, about 180° to 190° F., it being very im- 
portant that the liquid should not actually boil. This 


operation is caref ully kept up for twelve to sixteen hours, 
according to the nature of the cuttings, by which time all 
the material excepting any membranous or f atty matters 
that may be present, will have become dissolved and a 
solution of gelatine obtained. The liquor is then allowed 
to settle for a sbort time to allow fatty matters to rise to 
the surface and membranous substances to deposit, and the 
fatty jnatters must afterwards be carefully removed by 
skimming. The liquor should next be strained to sepárate 
any floating partióles of a membranous character. Some- 
times the gelatine solution is clarified by adding a small 
quantity of powdered lime, which is thoroughly mixed by 
stirring, after which it is allowed to rest. When it is 
f ound that the impurities and lime deposit too slowly, a 
little weak sulphuric acid is added, which, forming an 
insoluble sulphate of lime, the solid matters quickly sub- 
side, leaving the liquor quite clear. The solution is next 
filtered through felt, and is afterwards treated with a 
solution of alum, which at first causes the liquid to thicken 
and become nearly solid, but it becomes fluid again, how- 
ever, on the addition of more alum solution. When this 
condition is finally attained, the liquid is ready for use in 
the process of sizing. The addition of the alum (which 
should not contain any free acid) to the gelatine greatly 
improves its sizing property, besides preserving it f rom 
decomposition. The treatment of the glue pieces for 
the purpose of obtaining gelatine solutions is fully de- 
scribed in the author's work on " Leather Manufacture," 
p. 401.* 

American Method of Sizing. — Another method of pre- 
paring size, and which is adopted in America, is the follow- 
ing : — In large paper milis the size is generally prepared in 
a room devoted to the purpose, and is commonly situated near 
the machine. The finest grades of light hide and skin clip- 
pings are used for No. 1 letter papers, but less costly stock 
is employed for the lower grades of animal-sized papers. 

* " Art of Leather Manufacture." By Alexander Watt. Crosby 
Lockwood and Son, 1885. 


To preserve the glue pieces the tanners and tawers macérate 
tlie clippings in milk of lime and afterwards dry tnem. 
As the clippings require to be freed from the lime, the 
first treatment they receive at the paper-mill is to put 
them in large wooden tubs partly filled with water, in 
which they are allowed to soak for several days. They 
are afterwards more perf ectly cleansed by means of a drum- 
washer, such as we have before described. Fresh hide and 
skin clippings, that is, those which have not been limed and 
dried at the tanneries, and which are occasionally purchased 
by the paper manufacturers, require to be used as soon as 
possible af ter they arrive at the mili as they readily decom- 
pose, and are placed in tubs partly filled with water, in 
which 2 per cent, by weight of caustic lime has been dis- 
solved. The pieces, if from calfskins, are allowed to 
remain in the lime bath for ten to fifteen days, clippings 
of sheepskins fifteen to twenty days, and trimmings from 
heavy hides, as ox, etc., twenty-five to thirty days, the 
milk of lime being renewed once or twice a week, and the 
material well stirred from time to time. The glue-stock, 
as it is sometimes termed, is afterwards thoroughly washed 
in the drum-washer, and when this operation is complete 
the material is spread out in the yard to drain, and when 
suíficiently dried is ready for boiling, or may be stored 
until required for use. 

To prepare size from the material treated as described, 
it is placed in a boiler of cast or wrought-iron or copper, 
furnished with a perforated false bottom, and capable of 
holding from 100 to 400 lbs. of the raw material, accord- 
ing to the requirements of the mili. Several such boilers 
may be placed, cióse to each other. At the bottom of the 
boiler is a stop-cock for drawing off the gelatine solution 
when required. When the requisite charge of glue-stock 
has been introduced into the boiler, water is poured over 
it and steam turned on, which passes through a pipe fixed 
beneath the false bottom, and care is taken that the tem- 
perature of the contents of the boiler should not exceed 
200° F., which heat is kept up for ten to eighteen hours, 


according to the nature of the materíals treated. The 
gelatine solution is drawn off from the boiler as it is 
formed, into wooden tubs, and at the same time carefully 
strained to remove membranous matters and suchlike 
impurities. Several boilings are made from the same 
batch of glue-stock, and all the solutions are afterwards 
mixed together in the receiving tubs, and a solution of 
alum is added in such proportions as to be recognised by 
tasting the liquor. One object in adding the alum being 
to prevent the gelatine from decomposing, more of this 
substance should be added in warm than in cold weather. 

When the solutions are cool they are ready for use, and 
the gelatine is removed from the receiving tubs and dis- 
solved in a sepárate tub as required for use, the dissolving 
tub being provided with a steam-pipe. The proportion 
of water — which should only be lukewarm — used in 
dissolving the gelatine varies from a quarter to half 
the bulk of the latter, the nature of the fibre and thick- 
ness of the paper regulating the proportion of water to 
gelatine, the strength of the size liquors being greater for 
thin papers and weak fibres than for thick papers and 
strong fibres. 

The operation of sizing is considered one of the most 
difficult and uncertain with which the paper-maker has to 
deal, since the material (gelatine) is greatly influenced by 
the conditions of the afcmosphere, both as regards its tem- 
perature and humidity, while the temperature of the 
liquid size itself has also an important influence on the 
success of the operation. The condition of the paper, 
again, also affects the result, for if it be highly porous it 
will probably be weak, and consequently there may be 
considerable waste during the process of sizing from the 
necessary handling it is subjected to ; moreover, should the 
paper have been blued with ultramarine, a strongly offen- 
sive odour is often imparted to it ; this, however, may be 
obviated by employing fresh size and drying the paper as 
completely as possible. There are two systems of animal- 
sizing employed at the mili, namely, hand-sizing and 


machine-sizing, which is also called tub-sizing, tbe former 
being applied to papers of the finest quality. Papers that 
have been made by tbe macbine, after being cut into 
sheets, are hand-sized, as described in tbe next chapter. 

Machine- Sizing. — Tbe lower-priced papers, to be ma- 
chine-sized, are first partly dried over a few cylinders, 
after which tbe paper passes through a tank containing 
liquid size, from wbence it passes between two rollers, 
wbicb squeeze out tbe superfluous size ; it is tben wound 
on to a reel on wbicb it remains some time to enable tbe 
size to thoroughly permeate tbe paper, after wbicb it is 
wound on to anotber reel, and from tbence it passes over a 
series of wooden drums or cylinders, eacb of wbicb is 
furnisbed witb a revolving fan ; by tbis means tbe paper 
becomes dried slowly, wbereby a more perf ect sizing of tbe 
material is effected. 

Double-Sized Paper. — Tbis term is applied to paper 
wbicb, after being sized in tbe engine in tbe usual way, is 
afterwards " surface sized," as it is called, witb animal size 
in tbe manner described. 

Respecting tbe drying of paper after it bas been tub- 
sized tbere seems to be some difference of opinión as to 
wbetber it is best to bang it in a loft to dry or to dry it 
over tbe cylinders of a drying machine. Upon tbis point 
tbe New York Paper Trade Journal makes tbe following 
remarks : — " "When tbe paper is passed tbrougb tbe size- 
tub, it is again wet ; tbe fibres expand, and tbeir bold on 
eacb otber is relaxed. Now it must make a difference to 
tbe subsequent strengtb and quality of tbis paper wbether 
it be bung up in a loft to dry or run over a drying ma- 
cbine. If it is bung in tbe loft no strain is put upon it 
and tbe fibres are at liberty to sbrink, or slowly contract, 
in all directions ; wbereas if it is run over a drying 
macbine, consisting of from 50 to 100 reels, tbe longitudinal 
strain prevents tbe fibres from sbrinking and reassuming 
tbeir normal position in tbat direction. Attempts bave 
been made to obviate tbis defect by regulating tbe speed 
of eacb section of tbe macbine in sucb a manner as to 


allow f or the shrinking, but this only remedies the evil by 
preventing the paper from breaking as it travels over the 
machine. Everything else being equal, it would seem that 
loft-dried paper must be superior to that dried over the 
drying machine. Our home manufacturers endorse this 
view, inasmuch as they continué to prefer the system of 
loft-drying to the less expensive machine methods." 

Mr. SVyatt's Remarks on Sizing. — Mr. James W. 
"Wyatt, in a paper on the "Art of Paper-making,"* 
makes the following observations on engine- sizing and ani- 
mal-sizing which will be read with interest : — " Engine- 
sizing renders the paper fully as non-absorbent as animal 
size. The latter penetrates the sheets only slightly and 
forms a coating or skin on each surface, whereas the 
engine size surrounds each fibre and impregnates the 
whole mass. Surface- sizing, however, produces a stronger, 
firmer sheet, and is smoother for the pen to travel over ; 
the manufacturer also gets the benefit in the price of the 
paper of the additional weight of the size, amounting to 
7 per cent, on the average. On the other hand, as the 
animal size is mostly a skin on the surface, if the coating 
be broken anywhere by the use of a knife in scratching, 
the paper will only imperfectly resist ink in that place, a 
great disadvantage for account and office-books and ledgers. 
Engine- sized paper is much cheaper to produce than animal 
sized, and is therefore used principally for the lower 
qualities of writings and for almost all kinds of printings 
where firmness and smoothness is not so much a desiderá- 
tum. Most tub- sized papers have a certain portion of 
engine size mixed with the pulp. This not only ensures 
the thorough sizing of the sheet, but also is a measure of 
economy in reducing the absorbing power of the paper for 
the animal size. Papers for ledgers and ofiice-work are best 
given an extra proportion of engine size to ensure their 
ink-resisting properties, and they are also sized by hand 
in animal size and loft dried." The following rough 
estimate of the comparative cost in materials and wages 

* " Proceedings of the Society of Civil Engineers," vol. lxxix. p. 245. 


of engine-sizing and animal- sizing paper may be of 
interest : 

Engine-sizing, per 20,000 lbs. : — 

£ s. d. 
Materials . .520 
Wages ... 12 6 


Total . .£5 14 6 Cost per Ib. = 0-063 

Animal-8izing, per 20,000 lbs. : — 
£ s. d. 
Materials . . 36 
Wages . . . 4 10 

Total . . £40 10 


The Vat and Mould. — Making the Paper. — Sizing and Finishing. 

Under the oíd system of making paper by hand, the rags 
were reduced to a fine state of división by a process of 
retting, or slow putrefaction. The rags were first washed 
in water, and then piled in heaps, in which condition they 
were allowed to remaní until they became tender, that is, 
readily pulled asnnder by the fingers. During the decom- 
position the rags not unf requently became rotten in some 
portions of the heaps, thus involving considerable loss of 
fibre. The rags were next placed in a strong chest, in 
which iron-shod stamping rods were fitted, and these 
by their continued action gradually reduced them to a 
pulp. The stampers were eventually superseded by the 
beating-engine, the invention of a Dutchman, which 
received and still retains the ñame of the " Hollander." 
Other machines, as the duster, washing and breaking 
engines, and the beating engine, have entirely taken the 
place of the older system, which required the work of f orty 
pairs of stamps for twenty-four hours to produce One 
hundredweight of paper. 

The Vat and Mould. — The pulp being prepared, is 
conveyed from the beaters to the working vat, where it is 
diluted with water. The vat is a wooden or stone vessel 
about 5 f eet square and 4 f eet deej), being somewhat wider 
at the top than at the bottotn. A steam-pipe is supplied 
to the vat, so that the pulp and water may be heated to 
a convenient temperature for working, and an agitator is 



also furnislied to keep the pulp and water uniformly 
mixed. The inould in which the pulp is raised from the 
vat to form a sheet of paper, consists of a wooden frame, 
neatly joined at the corners, with wooden bars running 
across, about \\ inch apart, and flush with the top edge 
of the frame. Across these again, in the length of the 
frame, wires are laid, about fifteen or twenty in an ineh, 
which are placed parallel to each other. A series of 
stronger wires are laid along the cross-bars, to which the 
other wires are fastened; these give to what is termed 
"laid" paper, the ribbed or " water- marked" lines 
noticeable in hand-made paper. Upon the mould is fitted 
a movable frame, called the decide or deckel, which must 
fit very neatly or the edges of the paper will be rough. 
The mould and deckle form together a kind of shallow 
tray of wire. Sometimes the mould is divided by narrow 
ribs of wood, so that two or four sheets of paper may be 
made in one operation. Connected with the vat is a slant- 
ing board, called the bridge, with copper fillets attached 
lengthwise upon it, so that the mould may slide easily 
along the bridge. 

Making the Paper. — When preparing f or work, the vat- 
man stands on one side of the vat, and has on his lef t hand 
a smaller board, one end of which is fastened to the bridge, 
while the other rests on the side of the vat. An assistant, 
called the coucher, is at hand, whose duty it is to handle 
the frames or moulds containing the pulp after they 
have passed through the hands of the vat-man or maker. 
The latter now takes in his hand a mould, and lays it 
upon the deckle ; he then dips the mould, with its deckle 
in its proper place, into the vat of agitated pulp, and lifts 
up as much of the pulp as will form a sheet of paper. 
This, as will be readily seen, requires the greatest dex- 
terity, since the workman has nothing but his sense of 
feeling to guide him. It is said, however, that practice 
gives him such a nicety of feeling in this respect that he 
can make sheet after sheet of the largest-sized drawing 
papers with a difference in weight of not more than one 


or two grains in any two of them. Great skíll is also 
required to liold the mould ín a perfectly horizontal posi- 
tion, otherwise during the felting and settling oí* the pulp 
the sheet of paper would be thicker on one part than 
another. The mould being held lengthwise, that is, with 
the long parallel wires running f rom right to lef t hand, be 
gives tbe mould a gentle sbake from bis cbest forward 
and bíick again, wbicb is called tbe /ore- right shalce; tbis 
sbake takes place across tbe wires, not in tbe direction of 
tbeir lengtb. He next gives a sbake from rigbt to left, 
and back again, tbe respective movements tbus propelling 
tbe pulp in four directions. Tbe vat-man now pusbes tbe 
mould along tbe small board on bis left, and removes tbe 
deckle, wbicb be connects to anotber mould and proceeds 
to form anotber sheét of paper, and so on. Tbe coucber, 
taking tbe first mould in hand, turns it upside down upon 
a piece of woollen felt-cloth, then removing the mould, 
he takes another piece of felt and lays it over the sheet 
and returns the mould by pushing it along the bridge to 
the vat-man, wben he receives in return a second mould 
to be treated as before. 

In the above way felts and paper are laid alternately 
until a pile of six or eight quires is produced, wbich is 
afterwards submitted to pressure in a very powerful press. 
When sufficiently compressed, the machine is relaxed, 
and the felts are then drawn out, on the opposite side, 
by an operative, called a layer, wbo places the felts one by 
one upon a board, and the sheets of papes upon anotner 
board. The coucher then uses tbe felts again for f ur- 
ther operations. Two men and a boy only are employed 
in this part of the work. In tbe evening all tbe paper 
made during the day is put into another press, and sub- 
jected to modérate pressure to oblitérate the felt marks 
and expel a further portion of the water. On the fol- 
lowing day the paper is all separated, whicb is called 
parting, again pressed, and is then transferred to the 
drying-loft. The drying is effected by suspending tbe 
sheets of paper upon a series of ropes, attacbed to wooden 


supports ; ropes of cow-hair are used for the purpose, as 
this material does not stain the paper. 

Sizing and Finishing. — When the paper is dry, it is 
taken down and laid carefully in heaps ready for sizing, 
which is the next operation to which the paper is sub- 
jected. The preparation of the size from animal skins, 
etc., is described in Chapter XI. When preparing to 
size the paper, the workman takes several quires of the 
paper, and carefully spreads the sheets out in the liquid 
size, which is placed in a lar ge tub, taking care that each 
sheet is uniformly moistened before introducing the next. 
The superfluous size is afterwards pressed out, and the 
paper then "parted" into sepárate sheets, which are 
again subjectecl to pressure, and finally transferred to the 
drying-room, where they are allowed to dry slowly. When 
dry, the paper is conveyed to the finishing-house, to be 
again pressed and looked over by women, who, being 
furnished with small knives, pick out knots and other 
imperfections and sepárate the perfect from the imperfect 
sheets. The paper is now again pressed, and then 
handed to the finisher, to be counted into reams and packed, 
the reams being afterwards pressed and finally tied up 
and conveyed to the warehouse for sale. When the paper 
is required to be hot -pressed, this is done by placing each 
sheet of paper alternately between two smoothed sheets of 
pasteboard, and between each group of fifty pasteboards 
is placed a hot píate of iron, and the pile then submitted 
to heavy pressure, whereby the surface of writing paper 
acquires a fine, smooth surface. 


The Fourdrinier Machine. — Bertrams' Large Paper Machine. — Stufí 
Chests. — Strainers. — Eevolving Strainer and Knotter. — Self.-clean- 
sing Strainer. — Eoeckner's Pulp Strainers. — The Machine Wire and 
its Accessories. — Conical Pulp Saver. — The Dandy Eoll. — Water 
Marking. — De la Eue's Improvements in Water-marks. — Suction 
Boxes. — Couch Eolls. — Press Eolls. — Drying Cylinders. — Smoothing 
Eolls.— Single Cylinder Machine. 

The Fourdrinier Machine. — It is just ninety years since 
Louis Robert, a Frenchman, devised a machine for making 
a continuous web of paper on an endless wire-cloth, to 
which rotary motion was applied, thus producing a sheet 
of paper of indefinite length. The idea was subsequently 
improved upon by Messrs. Fourdrinier, who adopted and 
improved upon M. Robert' s machine, and with the valuable 
aid of Mr. Bryan Donkin, a young and gifted machinist, 
in the employ of Mr. Hall, engineer, of Dartford, con- 
structed a self-acting machine, or working model, in 1803, 
which, from its effectiveness and general excellency of 
workmanship, created at the time a profound sensation. 
This machine was erected at Frogmore, Hertfordshire ; 
and in 1804 a second machine was made and put up at 
Two-Waters, Herts, which was completely successful, and 
the manufacture of continuous paper became one of the 
most useful and important inventions of the age. From 
that period the " Fourdrinier," with some important im- 
provements introduced by Mr. Donkin, gradually, but 
surely, became established as an absolutely indispensable 
machine in every paper-mill all over the world. Although 
the machine has been still f urther improved from time to 


time, those of recent construction differ but little in prin- 
cipie from the original machine. An illustration of the 
machine is shown in Fig. 25, the detailed parts of which 
are expressed on the engraving. 

Bertrams' Large Paper Machine. — The principal aim 
in the construction of the paper-making machine has been 
to imitate, and in some particulars to improve, the operations 
involved in the art of making paper by hand, but apart 
from the greater width and length of paper which can be 
produced by the machine, the increased rapidity of its 
powers of production are so great that one machine can 
turn out as much paper in three minutes as could be 
accomplished by the olcler system in as many weeks. The 
drawing represents the modern paper-machine as manu- 
factured by Bertrams, Limited, who supplied one of these 
machines to Mr. Edward Lloyd, for the Daily Chronicle 
Mili, at Sittingbourne, which runs a wire 40 feet long by 
126 inches wide, this being, we believe, the largest and 
widest paper-machine in the world. It is provided with 20 
cylinders, chilled calenders, double-drum reeling motion, 
with slitting appliance for preparing webs to go direct to 
the printer's office without the assistance of a re-reeling 
machine, and is driven by a pair of coupled condensing 
steam-engines. On our recent visit to Mr. Lloyd's mili 
we were much struck with the excellent working of this 
splendid machine. 

In the illustration, as will be seen, there are two sets of 
drying cylinders, while small cylinders, or f elt drying-rolls, 
from 16 to 24 inches in diameter, are introduced to the 
felts of the cylinders, before the smoothing-rolls, which 
discharge the moisture with which the felts are impreg- 
nated from the damp paper, whereby a considerable saving 
in felts is effected. Messrs. Bertram state that the highest 
speed yet attained has been by their own machinery, and 
is 270 feet of paper per minute. 

The progress of the pulp after it leaves the beating- 
engines for conversión into paper may be described as 
follows : — The valve at the bottom of the beating-engine 








is opened, when the pulp flows through a pipe into the 
stuff-chests, which are generally situated below the level 
of the engines. The beaters are then rinsed with clean 
water to remove any pulp that may still cling to them, 
the rinsing water passing also into the stuff-chests. 

Stuíf-chests — These are large vessels of a cylindrical 
form, so that the pulp may have no córner s to lodge in, 
and are generally made of wood, though sometimes they 
are made of cast-iron plates bolted together. The chests 
are of various dimensions, according to the requirements 
of the mili, being usually about 12 feet in diameter and 
6 feet deep, having a capacity for 1,000 to 1,200 lbs. of 
stuff. To keep the pulp well mixed in the stuff-chest, of 
which two are usually employed for each machine, a ver- 
tical shaft, carrying two horizontal arms, each extending 
nearly across the interior of the chest, are provided, which 
are only allowed to revolve at a modérate speed, that is, 
about two or three revolutions per minute, otherwise the 
pulp would be liable to work up into knots, and thus form 
a defective paper. Motion being given to the shaft, the 
rotating arms keep the pulp and water uniformly mixed, 
at the same time preventing the pulp from sinking to the 
bottom of the stuff-chest. 

The pulp is next transferred to a regulating box, or 
" supply box," by means of a pump called the stuff-pump. 
The regulating-box, which has the effect of keeping a 
regular supply of piilp in the machine, is provided with 
two overflow pipes, which carry back to the stuff-chests 
any superfluous pulp that may have entered them, by 
which the stuff in the regulating-box is kept at a uni- 
form level, while the machine is supplied with a regular 
and uniform quantity of the diluted pulp. The stuff- 
pump conveys the pulp through a valve in the bottom of 
the regulating-box in a greater quantity than is actually 
required, the superfluity returning to the stuff-chests by 
the overflow pipes ; thus the supply-box, being always 
kept full, furnishes a regular and uniform supply of pulp 
to the sand-tables, or sand-traps as they are sometimes 


called. Sand-tables are large wooden troughs, yary- 
ing in size at different milis, but Mr. Dunbar gives the 
following proportions for a first-class sand-trap ; namely, 
14 feet long by 8 feet wide, and 8 deep. The 
bottom of the trap is covered with felt, sometinies oíd first- 
press felt being used, and is divided into several compart- 
ments by thin bars of lead or iron, or strips of wood, 
which keep the felt in position, and also retain any par- 
tióles of sand or other heavy solid matter that may be 
accidentally present in the pulp. For the purpose of 
diluting the pulp for the machine, there is, attached to 
the inlet of the sand-traps, a box with two supply-taps, 
one for the delivery of pulp, and the other for water ; 
and these being turned on, the pulp and water flow over 
the sand-traps, and the diluted pulp then falls into the 
strainers, which, while allowing the fine pulp to pass 
freely, keep back all lumps of twisted fibre, and partióles 
of unboiled fibre, which. latter, if not removed, would 
appear as specks on the surface of the finisbed paper. 

The Strainers are formed of brass or bronze plates, in 
which are cut a very large number of narrow slits, which 
gradually widen downward, so as to prevent the pulp f rom 
lodging. Eaeh píate lias about 510 slits, and several 
plates, connected together by bolts, constitutes the com- 
plete strainer. When in use, the strainer receives a 
jogging motion, which is communicated to it by means 
of small ratchet wheels keyed on shafts passing be- 
neath the machine ; this causes the fibres to pass more 
freely through the slits. There are many different forms 
of strainers, which have been the subject of numerous 
patents. It will be sufficient, however, to give one or two 
examples of improved strainers which have been more 
recently adopted by manufacturera. 

Revolving Strainer and Knotter. — The revolving 
strainer, which was invented by the late sénior partner in 
the firm of Messrs. Gr. and W. Bertram (now Bertrams, 
Limited), has since been extensively adopted, and the 
present firm have introduced a patent knotter in con june- 



tion with the apparatus, tlie complete arrangement of which 
is shown in Fig. 26. The standard size for these revolv- 
ing strainers is 7 feet long by 18-| inches wide dii each 
side of the four surfaces. The vats are of cast iron, and 

the apparatus is supplied with driving gear, bellows, regu- 
lating boxes and spouts, as necessary. The firm also supply 
these strainers with White's patent discs, and Annandale 
and Watson's arrangement. a a are two revolving 
strainers, as applied to the paper-machine, showing gear- 



ing for strainers and hellows. b is the patent knotter as 
used for two strainers. c is the counter-shaft overhead. 

n B is the back shaft of the machine, and e e the wire of 
the paper-machine. 
Self-cleansing Strainer. — The same íirm also intro- 



duced this form of strainer, an illustration of which is 
given in Fig. 27. The action of the strainer is described 
as follows : — 

The pulp flows on to the strainer at a, and pass es away 
through the pipes b b. At c is a valve for the discharge 
of waste pulp. The strainer plates have an inclination of 
about 1 inch in the direction of their length, and in those 
which are nearest to a, where the pulp enters, the slits are 
wider, the knots being pushed forward by the energy of 
the flow. The vacuum pumps, d d, are worked frorn the 
shaft e. The tubes f f are for supplying water to the 
plates, by which the coarser partióles of the pulp are 
pushed forward, and the slits are thus kept clean. The 
strainer will pass from 18 to 20 tons of the finest paper 
per week. 

Roeckner's Pulp Strainers. — This invention consists in 
constructing boxes, with one or both ends open, forrning 
the strainers, fixed, or to slide in or out, so as to be readily 

^7^, frprWn<r3nFCTU eTTW ¿p» <J-p> 

Fig. 28. 

cleaned. One or more fans are fitted in these boxes, and 
are put in motion frorn the outside, so as to cause what is 
called " suction " through the strainers. One or a num- 
ber of such boxes are fixed into a vat, the open ends dis- 
charging the pulp which has passed through the strainers 



to the paper-machine, and can be so arranged that all the 
fans are worked on one shaft. The vat may be divided 
inte- compartments, so that the stuff flows from one to the 
other. Instead of boxes, the strainers may be formed of 
tubes, in which suitable slits or perforations have been 
provided. The tubes will be perfectly closed at one end, 
and the strained pulp, after passing through them, will be 
deliveEed to the paper-machine from their open ends, 
which may fit into a ring, so that when cleaning is re- 
quired they may be easily lif ted out or in. The suction is 
provided inside these tubes by the fans, which are oscillated 
by suitable gear from the outsideof the vat. The strainers 
may, instead of being stationary, be attached to the fans 
and oscillate with them, in which case the open ends 

i®% y y y y 


Fig. 29. 

would have to be attached to the vat by an indiarubber or 
cloth ring, or the strainers may oscillate whilst the fans 
are stationary. Any number of these strainers may be 
fixed into vats, disposed vertically or otherwise. In the 
vat a, Fig. 28, which receives the pulp to be strained, are 
several tubes, p pp, with one end open, having slits in them 
similar to strainer plates. Inside of these are two, three, or 
more plates, ///, Fig. 29, running the full length of the 
tube fixed to the shafts, s s s, and to the sides of the tubes, 
which serve as fans, besides giving strength to the tubes. 
The shafts s s s are carried in bearings at each end, and 
have each one end projecting through, upon which are 
keyed levers, h h h, which, being connected to a rod r, 
worked by an eccentric, e, at the end, gives an oscillating 
motion to the tubes and fans. Any number of tubes may 



be in the vat, and rnay either work separately or divided. 
With several tubes it is preferable to nave them arranged 
as shown in the drawing by división píate d, so that the 
accuinulated "knots," &c, may flow finally into the end 
compartment (which will form an auxiliary strainer), and 
may be mixed with more water, so that the fine pulp still 
contained in the stuff can flow away through the slits and 
the knots, &c., be taken out when necessary. The tubes 
should be placed so far apart that a workman can get his 
hand between. The closed ends work free in the stuff, 
while the open ends run through indiarubber sheet or 


Fig. 30. 

other material, fitted so well to the tube that the fibre can 
only get through the slits of the tube to flow on to the 
papér-machine through the channel at side by the sluice v. 
The arrows indicate the direction of the flow of pulp. 

Mr. Dunbar says, "the straining power necessary to 
pass and clean pulp in an efncient manner for 25 tons of 
íinished paper per week is two revolving strainers, con- 
sisting of four rows of plates, or 7 feet by 18 inches of 
straining surface on each of the four sides, the plates 
being cut No. 2^ Watson's gauge." 

After passing through the strainers the pulp should be 
absolutely free from knots or objectionable partióles of 
any kind, and in a proper condition for conversión into 

The Machine Wire and its Accessories. — On leaving 
the strainers the pulp passes into a vat, in which is a 
horizontal agitator, which causes the pulp and water to 
become well mixed, and ready to flow on to the endless 
wire-cloth of the machine. The wire-cloth is made 


of exceedingly fine wire, the meshes ranging froni 60 
threads and upwards to the inch, there being some- 
times as many as 1,900 holes per square inch, but the 
meshes usually employed run irom 2,000 to 6,000 per 
square inch. The ends of the cloth are united by being 
sewn with very fine wire. The width of the wire-cloth 
varíes considerably, the greatest width being, we believe, 
that supplied for the large machine at Mr. Edward 
Lloyd's mili at Sittingbourne, which is 126 inches. The 
length of the wire-cloth is generally from 35 to 40 feet, 
the latter being considered preferable. Beneath the wire 
is placed a shallow box called the " save-all," which 
receives the water as it flows through the wire cloth from 
the pulp. In order to effect a further saving of pulp 
which escapes through the meshes of the wire-cloth, a 
machine called a "pulp-saver " is used at some milis, 
through which the backwater, as it leaves the box or 
save-all referred to, is passed. 

The wire-cloth is supported by a series of brass tube 
rolls, which are so placed as to render the layer of pulp 
on the wire absolutely uniform, by which a regular thick- 
ness of the finished paper is ensured. The wire is attached 
to a malleable iron frame, having a sole-plate of cast iron, 
and carries a brass or copper breast-roll, 18 inches in 
diameter, a guide-roll 7 inches in diameter, and four brass 
or copper rolls 5 inches in diameter under the wire, with 
shafts extending through the rolls, and furnished with 
brass bushes and brackets, and a self-acting guide upon 
the 7-inch guide-roll. The tube-rolls or " carrying tubes " 
are carried upon brass bearings. Attached to the sole- 
plate of the wire framing are three cast-iron stands on 
each side for supporting the save-all beneath the wire. 
To regúlate the width of the paper there is on the top of 
the wire a set of brass " deckles," carried on a brass frame 
passing over the first suction box, of which there are two, 
and supported on the wire frame by iron studs fixed in 
the frame. At each end of the deckle-frame is a pulley 
for carrying the deckle-strax», with three similar pulleys 



for expanding it. The deckle-frame is fumished with 
two endless straps of india-rubber, tbese straps keeping 
the pulp to the width required for forniing ledges at the 
sides of the web. 

The Conical Pulp-saver, which is shown in Fig. 31, was 
invented by the late Mr. George Bertram and Mr. Paisley, 
and is manufactured by Bertrams, Limited. Its use is to 
extract fibres from the washing water before going into 
the river or otherwise. For the water from the drum- 
washer, washing and beating engines, and for the water 
from the paper-making machine, save-all, &c, it has 

Fig. 31. 

proved itself of great ntility. It is simple in construc- 
ción, small in cost, takes up little room, and is easily 
repaired. When placed to receive the washings from the 
beaters or paper-machine, the pulp saved, if kept clean, 
can always be re-used. a is a conical drum which is 
covered with wire-cloth, and it is made to revolve slowly 
by suitable gearing. The water enters by the pipe b, 
which is perforated, as shown, and passes through the 
meshes of the gauze, while the pulp gradually finds its 
way to the wider end of the drum, where it escapes into 
the box c, and can be conveyed again to the beating- 

The Dandy-roll. — When it is required to produce a 
design or ñame, termed a toa er-mark, upon the paper, this 
is done by means of a roll called the dandy-roll, which 



consists of a skeleton roll covered with wire-cloth, upou 
which the design is worked by means of very fine wire. 
If the paper is required to be alike on both sides, without 
any specific pattern or ñame upon it, the roll is simply 
covered with wire-cloth, the impressions from which upon 

Fig. 32. 

the moist pulp correspond with those of the machine-wire 
on the under surface. By this means paper known as 
" wove " paper is produced. A dandy-roll of this cha- 
racter is shown in Fig. 32. "Laid" paper, as it is 

. '",-. "T' : 

;¡! II lililí!:^! I: i; 
a.'S?ígífciH/¿ , sí?íb¡,„' 


"Fig. 33. 

termed, is distinguished by a dandy-roll having a series 
of equidistant transverse wires on the upper surface of 
the wire cylinder, as shown in Fig. 33, the effect of which 
is to produce parallel lines on the paper, caused by the 
pulp being thinner where the moist paper is impressed by 
the raised wires, which renders the lines more transparent 
than the rest of the paper. The dandy-roll, which is 
usually about 7 inches in diameter, corresponds in length 



to the wicltli of wire 0x1 which it rests, and is placed over 
the wire-clotli between the suction-boxes. The journals 
of the roll turn in slits in two vertical stands, one behind 
the machine f rame and the other in front of it. The roll, 
however, rests with its whole weight on the wire, and 
revolves by the progressive motion of the wire. The 
stands which support the roll prevent it from being 
influenced by the lateral motion of the wire. By thus 
running over the surface of the pulp when the wire is in 
motion, this roll presses out a considerable quantity of 
water, at the same time rendering the paper closer and 
finer in texture. Dandy-rolls of various lengths, and 
bearing different designs or patterns, are kept at the paper- 
mills, and great care is exercised to preserve them from 

Water-Marking. — Dr. Ure describes the following pro- 
cesses for producing a design for a line water-mark : — 1. 
The design is engraved on some yielding surface in the 
same way as on a copper-plate, and afterwards, by im- 
mersing the píate in a solution of copper sulphate, and 
producing an electrotype in the usual way, by which all 
the interstices become so filled up as to give a casting of 
puré copper. This casting, on being removed from the 
sulphate bath, is ready for attaching to the wire gauze 
of the dandy-roll. 2. The design is first engraved on a 
steel die, the parts required to give the greatest effect 
being cut deepest ; the die, after being hardened, is forced 
by a steam hammer into some yielding material, such as 
copper, and all of this metal which remains above the 
plain surface- of the steel is subsequently removed by 
suitable means ; the portion representing the design being 
left untouched would then be attached to the wire-gauze 
as before. Light and shade can be communicated to the 
mark by a modification of the above process, for which 
purpose an electrotype of the raised surface of a design 
is first taken, and afterwards a second electrotype from 
this latter, which consequently will be idéntica! with 


tiie original surface. These two are then mounted on 
lead or gutta-percha, and employed as dies to give impres- 
sion to fine copper-wire gauze, which is then employed as 
a mould. Thus absolute uniformity, such as could not be 
attained by the oíd system of stitching wires together, is 
now attained in bank-notes by the adoption of the above 
method. It may be mentioned that when the moulds 
were formed by stitching the fine wires together to form 
a design, no less than 1,056 wires, with 67,584 twists, 
and involving some hundreds of thousands of stitches, 
were required to form a pair of ¿65 note moulds, and it 
was obviously impossible that the designs should remain. 
absolutely identical. 

Sometimes water-marks are produced by depressing the 
surface of the dandy-roll in the form of a design, which 
causes the paper to be thicker where the design is than 
in the rest of the sheet of paper. This modification was 
invented by Dr. De la Rué. 

De La Eue's Improvements in Water-marks. — By 
one method, patented in 1869, dandy-rolls, having a sur- 
face of embossed wire-gauze, are used ; the indentations 
in the gauze are inwards, causing a thickening of the 
paper where they are brought in contact with it. These 
thickenings correspond in form to the configuration of the 
design or water-mark. The inventor has also aflfixed wire 
to the surface of such dandy-rolls so as to form projec- 
tions, in order to thin the paper where the projections 
come in contact with it, by which means light lines are 
obtained in the water-mark, strengthening the effect of 
the thickened opaque design. 

By another patent, dated May, 1884, No. 8348, the 
inventor forms the surface of the dandy-roll of wire- 
gauze embossed in such a manner that parts of the 
surface of the gauze, corresponding to the configura- 
tion of the design of the water-mark, are raised, and 
project out from the general surface, and other parts 
corresponding to the line shading of the design are de- 


pressed below tlie level of the general surface. The accom- 
panying drawing, Fig. 34, shows diagraminatically, and 
greatly enlarged, a section of a portion of the surface of a 
dandy-roll made in accordance with this invention. a 

Fig. 34. 

iepresents the section of a ridge or projection raised on 
the surface of the gauze ; b represents the section of a 
groove or depression in the wire-gauze, which, with other 
similar grooves, serves to produce an opaque shading to 
the design. c is an auxiliary ridge or projection, serving 
to define the shading line, and to intensify it by driving 
the pulp into the groove or depression b. Further effects 
majT- be obtained by attaching wires to the dandy-roll, 
either in the usual way, where the surface is unembossed, 
or upon the raised parts a, which give the configuration 
to the water-mark. In place of forming the ridges or 
projections a, which produce the configuration of the 
water-niark, by raising portions of the w iré- gauze abo ve 
the general surface, they may be formed by sewing on 
suitably shaped slips of wire-gauze, or of sheet metal perf o- 
rated all over with fine holes, on to the surface of the gauze 
which is embossed with the grooves b, but it is much to be 
preferred that both the ridges a and the grooves b should 
be produced by embossing the gauze. "Water-marks may 
also be produced by placing sheets of finished paper in 
contact with plates of copper or zinc, bearing a design in 
relief, and submitting them to heavy pressure. 

Sucticm-Boxes. — These boxes, which are fitted under 
the wire, are made of wood, and are open at the top, the 
edges being lined with vulcanite. The ends of the boxes 
are movable, so that they may be adj usted to suit the 
width of the paper required ; they are also provided with 



air-cocks for regulating the vacuum, which is obtained by 
means of two sets of vacimm pumps, liaving three 6-inch 
barréis to eacb set : 
a vacuum pump of 
this form is shown 
in Fig. 35. As the 
wire travels over 
these boxes, the ac- 
tion of the pumps 
draws the wire upon 
them with sufficient 
pressure to render 
them air-tight ; by 
this means a large 
portion of the water 
which the pulp still 
retains at this point 
becomes extracted, 
thereby giving to 
it such a degree of 
consistency that it 
can stand the pres- 
sure of the couch- 
rolls without in- 
jury. The back- 
water extracted by 
the suction-boxes, 
as also that col- 
lected in the save- 
all, is added to a 
fresh supply of 
pulp before it flows on to the sand-tables. 

Couch-Kolls. — At the extreme end of the wire-cloth 
from the breast-roll, and inside the wire, is the under 
couch-roll, from which the wire receives its motion. This 
roll, which is of brass, is usually about 14 inches in dia- 
meter, is carried upon a cast-iron framing with brass 
bearings, and is ground to a working joint with the top 

Fig. 35. 


roll, which is also of brass, and 20 inches in dianieter. Both 
these rolls are covered with a seamless coating of woollen 
felt. The upper roll rests upon the lower one, and the 
wire-cloth, and the web of paper npon it, pass between the 
rolls, receiving gentle pressure, by which the paper be- 
comes deprived of more water, rendering it still more com- 
pact. It is at this stage that the web of paper leaves the 
wire-cloth, and passes on to a continuously revolving and 
endless web of woollen felt, termed the " wet felt/ 5 from 
the moist condition of the paper. This felt, which is car- 
ried on wooden rollers, is about 20 f eet long, and is manu- 
factured with considerable care. 

The Press-Rolls. — The paper now passes on to the 
first press-rolls, which deprive it of a still further quantity 
of water, and put it in a condition to bear gentle handling 
withont injury. The upper roll is fitted with a contri vanee 
termed the " doctor," which keeps the roll clean by remov- 
ing fragments of paper that may have become attached to 
it. The doctor is furnished with a knife which passes 
along the entire length of the roll, pressing against it from 
end to end. These rolls are generally of iron, jacketed 
with brass, the under one being 14 inches in diameter, and 
the top roll 16 inches. Sometimes this roll is made of fine- 
grained cast-iron. When the roll is of iron the doctor 
blade is steel ; but when this roll is brass the knife is of 
the same material. The under surface of the paper, which 
has been in contact with the felt, and necessarily being in 
a moist condition, receives more or less an impression 
from the felt over which it travelled, while the upper sur- 
face, on the other hand, will have been rendered smooth 
by the pressure of the top roll of the first press. To 
modify this, and to render both surfaces of the paper as 
nearly uniform as possible, the paper passes through 
another set of rolls, termed the second joress-ro/Zs, in 
which the paper becomes re ver sed, which is effected by 
causing it to enter at the back of the rolls, which rotate in 
a reverse direction to those of the first press, by which 
the under or wire side of the paper comes in contact with 


the top roll of the press. By tliis arrangement tlie under- 
side of the paper is rendered equally smootli with the 
upper surface. The second set of press-rolls is provided 
with an endless felt of its own, which is usually both 
stronger and thieker than that used in connection with the 
first press-rolls. In some milis each set of press-rolls is 
provided with a doctor, to prevent the web of paper from 
adhering to the metal. Sometimes the doctor knives 
are máde from vulcanite, a material which would seem 
specially suited for a purpose of this kind. Trom this 
point the paper passes to the first set of drying cylinders. 
The Drying Cylinders. — The invention of the steam 
drying cylinder is due to Mr. T. B. Crompton, who, in 
the year 1821, obtained a patent for this useful addition 
to the paper-machine. Since that period, however, the 
system of drying the paper by steam-heat has been brought 
to a high state of perf ection ; not only this, but the number 
of cylinders has gradually increased, while the heat to which 
they are raised has proportionately decreased, and as a con- 
sequence the size, which is injuriously affected by rapid dry- 
ing, is gradually deprived of its moisture, and thus renders 
the paper closer and stronger, while at the same time a 
very rapid speed can be maintained. The drying cylinders 
in the machine shown in the engraving are 4 íeet in dia- 
meter and 12 in number, being arranged in two groups of 
8 and 4 cylinders respectively, and in the aggregate present 
a very large drying surface, it being very important that the 
operation should be effected gradually, more especially at 
its earlieí stages. There is a passage between the second 
press-roll and the cylinders, through which the machine- 
men can pass from one side of the machine to the other. 
The first two or three of the first section of cylinders are 
only moderately heated, and having no felt on them, allow 
the moisture from the paper to escape f reely. The next five 
cylinders, however, are provided with felts, which press 
the paper against the heated surfaces, by which it be- 
comes smooth and flattened, thus putting it into a proper 
condition for passing between the smoothing-rolls. The 




cylinders are heated by steam, and are generally of de- 

creasing diameter, to 
allow f or the shrink- 
ing of the paper dur- 
ing the drying. 

— These consist of 
highly polished cast- 
iron rolls, heated by 
steam. The pajDer 
being in a somewhat 
moist conditionwhen 
ít passes through 
these rolls, they ha ve 
the eífect of produc- 
ing a fine smooth 

The paper next 
passes over the last four drying 
cylinders, all being provided 
with felts, to keep the paper 
closely pressed against their 
heating surf aces, by which the 
remaining moisture becomes ex- 
pelled and the paper rendered 
perfectly dry. The paper now 
passes through the calender 
rolls, and is then wound on to 
reels at the extreme end of the 
machinery. The operation of 
calendering will be treated in 
the next chapter. 

Single Cylinder Machine. — 
For the manufacture of thin 
papers, as also for papers which 
are required to be glazed on 
one side only, a single cylinder machine, called the 
Yankee machine, has been introduced, a representation 


of which is shown in Fig. 36. It is constructed on the 
same principie as the larger Fourdrinier machine up 
to the couching-rolls, when the paper leaves the wire-cloth 
and passes on to an endless felt running ronnd the top 
couch-roll, and passes from thence to a large drying 
cylinder, which is abcufc 10 feet in diameter and heated 
by steam, the surface of which is highly polished, giying 
to the surface of the paper in contact with it a high gioss. 
There is attached to the machine an arrangement for 
washing the felt for the purpose of cooling and opening 
it out after passing through a cold press-roll and the hot 
drying cylinder. This machine, as manufactured by 
Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, for cap, skip, and thin papers, 
consists of a rocking frame, and wrought-iron side bars, 
fitted with brass bearings, the necessary brass and copper 
tube-rolls, couch-rolls, with driving shaft, stands and 
pulley ; self-acting wire guide, brass decide sides and 
pulleys, brass slice, vacuum boxes, pipes and cocks ; wet 
felt frame, with the necessary water pipes and cocks, and 
carriages to carry the couch-rolls and felt-rolls ; the 
necessary wet felt-rolls and a felt washing apparatus ; one 
bottom press-roll carried by brass steps, and fitted with 
compound levers and weight ; one large cast-iron drying 
cylinder about 10 feet in diameter, and fitted with a cen- 
tral shaft, steam admission and water delivery nozzles, two 
water lifters and pipes, a manhole and vacuum valve, a 
large spur driving wheel, spur pinion, driving shaft and 
pulley; massive cast-iron framework, with pedestals to 
carry the cylinder ; traversing steel doctor and frames ; 
copper leading roll and carriages, a pair of reeling stands 
fitted with brass steps, friction pulleys and plates, regulat- 
ing screws, etc. ; a wooden platform and iron guard rail, 
all carried by strong cast-iron framing ; the necessary pulp 
and backwater pumps, shake, knotter, stuff chests, service 
cistern, pipes and valves, shafting, pedestals, change 
wheels, pulleys, &c. These machines can be obtained of 
any desired width. 


Web-glazing. — Glazing Calender. — Damping-Rolls. — Finishing. — Píate 
Glazing. — Donkin's Glazing Press. — Mr. Wyatt on American 
Super-calendering. — Mr. Arnot on Finishing. — Cutting. — Revclving 
Knife Cutter. — Bertrams' Single-sheet Cutter. — Packing the Finished. 
Paper. — Sizes of Paper. 

To impar t a higher gloss, or, as it is teclmically termed 
" glaze," to paper after it leaves the machine, it has to be 
subjected to further calendering, which is accomplished 
either in the web, or in sheets, according to the quality of 
the paper. 

Web-G-lazing. — Glazing Calender. — When paper has to 
be glazed in the web, it is passed between a series of rolls, 
which are constructed upon several difíerent systems. In 
one form of this machine the rolls are alternately of finely 
polished iron, and compressed paper, or cotton, the iron 
rolls being bored hollow to admit of their being connected 
to steam pipes, for heating them when necessary. In this 
machine there are eight rolls, the centre pair being both 
paper rolls, which have an effect equival ent to reversing the 
paper, by which both sides are made alike. Another form 
of glazing calender, of American origin, but which has 
been improved upon by our own engineers, consists of a 
stack of rolls made from chilled iron, the surfaces of 
which are ground and finished with exquisite precisión 
upon a system adopted in America. A representation of 
this calender as manufactured by Messrs. Bentley and 
Jackson is given in Fig. 37. Such rolls as require heat- 
ing are bored through, and their ends fitted with brass 
junctions and cocks, to regúlate the admission of steam. 



The standards are of cast iron, planed and fitted with 

phosphor bronze bearings ; the bearings to cariy the top 

roll of the stack are furnished 

with wrought-iron screws and 

hand wheels, and wrought-iron 

lifting links can be attached 

to raise one or more of the 

rolls, according to the finish 

required on the paper. Com- 

pound levers are also supplied, 

to regúlate and adjust the pres- 

sure on the ends of the rolls. 

Damping Rolls. — An import- 
an t improvement in connection 
with the calendering of paper 
was introduced by Messrs. Gr. and W. Bertram a few 
years since, by which a higher finish is given to the 
paper than had previously been attainable. This con- 

Fig. 37. 

Fig. 38. 

sists of a damping apparatus a (Fig. 38) which is placed 
between the last drying cylinders b of the machine and 
the glazing calenders c. The damping-rolls consist of 



two brass or copper rolls, about 14 incbes in diameter, 
through which a constant stream of cold water is passed, 
while a line of steam jets, issued from finely-períbrated 
pipes, plays over the tace of the rolls. The cold water 
within the rolls condenses the steam, thereby imparting 
a uniform moisture to the under surface of the paper, 
which enables it to take a better surface when passing 
through the glazing rolls. The steam-pipes can be regu- 
lated so as to give any amount of dampness required by 
adjusting the steam cocks accordingly. By reference to 
the engraving, it will be observed from the disposition of 
the rolls that the web of paper is reversed, thus equalising 
the moisture on both sides, by which the paper-ma'ker is 
enabled to produce an evenly-finished paper. 

The chilled-iron glazing-rolls, as originally introduced, 
were fitted up in stacks of seven, and sometimes as many 
as nine rolls, but it was found in practice that so large 
a number of rolls gave unsatisf actory results ; the heavy 
pressure, acting on the paper immediately af ter leaving the 
drying cylinders, had the elfect of " crushing" the paper, 

Fig. 39. 

giving it a thin feel. It is now considerea preferable to 
use calenders having not more than four, or at most five 
rolls. An arrangement of this description, manufactured 
by Bertrams, is represen ted in Fig. 39. The system 
recommended by Mr. Dunbar is to employ three sets of 


rolls, disposed as f ollows : — " First, a set of three rolls ; 
second, a set to consist of four rolls, and a stack of five to 
give the finishing or dry surface. With this arrangement 
of calenders, and the assistance of the damping apparatus, 
any desired surface can be got by varying and regulating 
the drying of the paper, which any careful machine-man 
can do with ordinary attention." 

Finishing. — To give a still higher finish to the paper, 
it is subjectedto what is termed " friction-glazing," which 
consists in passing it through a stack of rolls, formed 
altérnate] y of small iron rolls and larger paper ones, the 
iron rolls revolving at a much higher speed than the 
paper-rolls. The effect of this final glazing operation 
gives the paper a very fine surface. 

Fíate- Glazing, — Donkirís Glazing Press. — This term, 
which is also called " super-calendering," is applied to a 
method of glazing hand-made paper, and is also adopted 
for the better qualities of machine-made paper. It con- 
sists in placing sheets of paper between highly polished 
plates of either copper or zinc, the latter being more 
generally used. The metal plates, with the sheets of paper 
placed alternately between them, are made up into packs 
or " handfuls " (the operation being usually performed by 
women), and these are passed between two powerful rolls, 
giving a pressure of from twenty to thirty tons, and each 
pack, consisting of about forty plates and as many sheets, 
is passed through the rolls several times, the pressure being 
regulated by means of screws or levers and weights acting 
on the ends of the top roll. A machine for glazing paper 
in packs, manufactured by Messrs. Bryan Donkin and Co., 
is shown in Fig. 40. Some descriptions of paper, as 
" antique" and " oíd style," for example, are surfaced with 
good cardboard instead of copper or zinc plates. As soon 
as the handful has passed through the rollers, the motion 
of the machine is reversed, by which means the pack is 
made to pass forwards and backwards repeatedly, accord- 
ing to the extent of gloss or smoothness required. 

Mr. Wyatt on American Super - calendering. — 



Mr. Wyatt, on a recent visit to America, bad many 
opportunities of witnessing tlie systems of manufacture 
adopted tbere, and subsequently delivered an interesting 
address to the members of tbe Paper-Makers' Club,* in 

Fig. 40. 

wbicb be acknowledged tbe superiority of tbe bigb-class 
printing papers for book-work, wbicb bas so often been 
tbe subject of recognition in tbis country. Indeed, if we 
compare tbe surface of tbe paper used even for ordinary 
tecbnical journals in America and tbat generally adopted 
for our own periodicals of a similar class, we are con- 
strained to admit tbat tbe difference is in favour of our 
transatlantic competitors. " In tbe manufacture of bigb- 
class super-calendered printing papers," Mr. "Wyatt ob- 
serves, "for fine book-work, or as tbey cali tbem book 
papers, tbe Americans certainly excel. Wbetber tbis be 

* Paper-Makers' Monthly Journal, April 15th, 1889. 


due to the kind of raw material used, to the almost uni- 
versal use of the refining-engine, which renders the pulp 
very soft and mellow, or to the state of perfection to 
which they have brought the art of super-calendering, or 
perhaps due to all three, I could not exactly determine. 
The material generally used for this class of paper is 
poplar chemical fibre and waste paper to the extent of 
50 per cent., and even up to 75 and 80 per cent, of the 
total fibre, the balance being rags, or, in cheaper quali- 
ties, sulphite wood pulp ; the stuíf is all mixed together 
in large beaters, holding from 800 Ibs. up to 1,500 lbs. of 
pulp, where it is about half beaten, and then finished in 
one or other form of refining-engine. 

" The American s have, I think, more thoroughly studied 
the question of super-calendering paper than we, and in 
this respect get better results and better work. The paper 
is mostly slit and trimmed on the paper-machine, and 
reeled up in from two to four widths by an ingenious 
contrivance called the Manning-icinder, which automati- 
cally keeps the tensión constant on each of the reels, 
whatever the diameter, and is super-calendered in narrow 
widths on small calenders. These calenders are from 
36 inches to 42 inches wide, and consist of a stack of 9 
to 11 rolls, alternately chilled iron, and cotton or paper ; 
the paper is passed through the rolls two or three times, 
never less than twice, under great pressure applied by 
hand-screws. The power required is very high, being 
from 40 to 50 h.p. for each calender, and the speed 
from 450 feet up to 600 feet per minute. The paper is 
not usually damped before calendering, but is left rather 
under-dried from the machine ; neither is steam heat used 
in the rolls, which get very warm, owing to the high speed 
at which they run. The rolls are driven entirely by 
straps, the arrangements for the fast and slow speed and 
for reeling on and off the paper being well designed and 
worked out ; the main strap, running at high speed, runs 
on a loóse pulley on the shaft of the bottom roll, by means 
of a powerful friction clutch ; this pulley can be made a 


tight one. On tliis same bottoin shaft is keyed a múltiple 
V-shaped grooved friction pulley. Another, and inde- 
pendent shaft, driven from the main shaft by a crossed 
belí, has a small grooved pulley keyed on it, wbicb can 
be thrown in and out of gear witb the large grooved 
pulley. Strap-driving is tbus secured throughout, and 
the speed can be increased gradually without jerks, from 
the starting up to the f astest speed by working the levers, 
gearing the friction clutch and pulleys slowly." 

In reference to the high finish of American papers, we 
are disposed to attribute this mainly to the nature of the 
chief raw material used — wood libre. In the year 1854, 
when specimens of Mr. Charles Watt's wood-fibre paper 
were first printed upon, the remarkable gloss of the wood 
paper attracted much attention, and it was noticed that 
the impression of the ink appeared to be well on the sur- 
face of the paper, and not, as was often the case with 
ordinary printing papers of the time, partially absorbed 
by the paper itself. Mr. Wyatt states that poplar 
chemical fibre and waste paper to the extent of 50 per 
cent., and even up to 75 and 80 per cent., are used, the 
balance being rags ; now since the waste paper in all 
probability would be composed largely of wood fibre, and 
as, in the cheaper qualities, sulphite wood pulp is used in 
lieu of rags, it will be fair to assume that the chief basis 
of the highly-finished papers for which the Americans 
are justly famous is wood fibre, and we believe that there 
is no other variety of cellulose which is so susceptible of 
producing a naturally glossy paper as that which is ob- 
tained from wood by the soda process. 

Mr. Arnot on Finishing. — Mr. Arnot makes the 
following observations respecting the finishing of pa- 
per : — " The paper may be slit into widths, suitable for 
wet calenders, or may be cut up into sheets, and glazed 
by the píate or board calenders. The former method of 
surfacing or finishing has come extensively into use 
in recent times, the labour involved being much less 
than in the older method of finishing in sheets. Still, 


lio we ver, tlie píate calenders are kept at work upon 
the higher classes of goods, it being possible to give 
amiost any degree of surface to good paper by that means. 
There is little doubt, too, that the paper glazed by the 
píate rolls retains its original softness to a greater degree 
than that passed through web calenders. In the latter it 
is exposed in one thickness to great pressure, and is 
thinned in consequence ; whereas, when the sheets are 
made up into piles, along with copper or zinc plates, there 
is a certain amount of spring or elasticity in the treatment 
which largely counteracts the crushing action of the rolls. 
The web calenders consist of a series of rollers erected in 
a vertical frame, and between these the paper winds, be- 
ginning at the top and coming downwards, so that the 
pressure gradually increases as the paper moves on its 
journey. It will be observed that the under rolls have to 
bear the weight of the upper ones, and that consequently 
the pressure on the paper will be greater the lower down 
it descends. Many of the rollers themselves are now 
made of paper, and as these possess a slight degree of 
elasticity, and take a high polish, they are alternated with 
iron rollers with good effect. The paper-rolls are made 
by sliding an immense number of circular sheets, per- 
forated in the centre, on to an iron core or shaft, pressing 
these cióse together by hydraulic action, and trimming 
them ofí on the lathe. The píate or broad calenders con- 
sist only of two rollers, the upper one heavily weighted, 
preferably by compound levers. Between these rollers 
the sheets of paper, alternated with plates of copper or 
zinc, and made up into bundles about an inch in thick- 
ness, are passed backwards and f orwards, the reciprocating 
action being produced by the movement of a lever in the 
hand of an attendant. The metal and paper sheets of 
different bundles may be interchanged, and the process 
repeated with the eifect of increasing the beauty and 
equality of the finish." 

Cutting. — Reuolving Knife. — When paper is to be used 
in a continuous printing-machine, or, as is often the case, 



has to be exported in the web, it is supplied in rolls ; other- 
wise it is cut into sbeets bef ore leaving the mili. The f orm 
of cutter generally used is what is termed the revoking 
knife-cutter, an illustration of which, as manufactured by 
Bertrams, Limited, is shown in Fig. 41. At a is shown 
a series of webs, the paper f rom which is drawn forward 
by the rolls, b, and is then slit into suitahle widths, and 

Fig. 41. 

the margin at the same time pared by circular knives, one 
of which is shown at c. It then passes through a pair of 
leading- rolls, after which it comes in contact with a knife, 
d, attached to a revolving drum, e, pressing against a 
dead knife not shown in the engraving. The sheets, as 
they are thus cut, drop upon a travelling felt or apron, r, 
from which they are lif ted and placed in piles, by boys or 
girls standing on each side of the felt. These machines 
will cut eight webs at one time. 

Bertrams' Single-sheet Cutter. — In cases where it is 
necessary that the sheets should be cut with great uni- 
formity, as in the case of paper bearing a water-mark, in 
which it is requisite that the design should appear exactly 
in the centre of the sheet, the ordinary cutter is not found 
to be sufíiciently reliable ; a machine termed a " single- 



sheet cutter " is therefore used for this purpose, of which 
an illustration is shown in Fig. 42. The paper is led 
direct from the paper-machine, or f rom a reel frame, to 
the drawing-in rolls, a ; after which it passes through the 
circular slitting-knives, b ; from here it is led by the 
roller c to a large wood-covered drum, d, and at the front 

Fig. 42. 

of this drum the sheefcs are cut by the cross-cutting 
knives, e. There are two cast-iron tapered cones, with 
belt guide for adjusting the speed ; a fly-wheel to pro- 
mote steadiness in working ; a series of wrought-iron 
levers, cranks, eccentrics, shafts, etc., for accurately regu- 
lating the travel of paper and the cut of the horizontal 
knives ; a small pasting table is also fitted across the 
machine for mending broken sheets. 

Facking the Finished Faper — The paper, after it 
leaves the cutting-machine, is conveyed to the finishing- 
house, where it is carefully examined by women, who cast 
aside all defective or damaged sheets, which, under the 


trade ñames of "imperfections" or "retrae," are 
disposed of, at a lower rate, to the customer for whom the 
order is executed. In the warehouse these imperfections 
are marked with a capital E, on the wrapper, or two 
crosses, thus XX. If the paper is broken, it is sometimes 
marked B X X ; it is not generally the custom, however, 
to sell imperfections, but to return them to the beater-man, 
to be re-converted into pulp. The perfect sheets are then 
counted, and packed up in reams consisting of 480 to 516 

Sizes of Paper. — The various sizes of paper are known 
in the stationery trade under different designations, as 
demy, crown, double crown, royal, imperial, etc. As paper 
is generally purchased according to weight, the various 
weights per ream are also distinguished with the size of 
the paper, as 16 Ib. demy, 22 Ib. double crown, and so on. 
The following table shows the sizes of some of the writing 
and printing paper s in common use : — 





Small post (or post) . . . 

17 xl3J 


17 x 13| 
18J x \b\ 




35¿ x 22J 



Coloured Papers.— Colouring Matters used in Paper-Making. — American 
Combinations for Colouring. — Mixing Colouring Materials with Pulp. 
— Colouring Paper for Artificial Flowers.— Stains for Glazed Papera. 
— Stains for Morocco Papers. — Stains for Satin Papers. 

Coloured Fapers. — There are several methods by which 
any desired shade of colour may be imparted to paper, 
which are as follows : — 

1. By blending with the pulp in the beating-engine 
some insoluole substance, such as smalts blue — a kind of 
glass coloured by oxide of cobalt — ultramarine, yellow 
ochre, etc. 

2. By adding a coloured liquid, which. simply dyes or 
stains the fibre. 

3. By using rags wnich are already coloured, in propor- 
tions to give the required shade, in which case of course 
the process of bleaching must be omitted. 

4. By employing two substances, as yellow prussiate of 
potash (ferrocyanide of potassium) and a persalt of iron, 
for example, which, when combined, yield the requisite 
blue tint — Prussian blue. 

By this latter method the buff shade given to what is 
termed toned paper is effected, by using a solution of cop- 
peras (sulphate of iron) and an alkaline solution, or by using 
a solution of pernitrate of iron. In experimenting in this 
direction we have f ound that a mixture of solutions of sul- 
phate of iron and bichromate of potassa produce an agree- 
able and permanent buff tint. The solutions may be added 
to the pulp alternateiy, or may be first mixed and then at 


once put into the beater. From 2 to 3 ozs. of each salt 
for each gallón of water may be used if the solutions are 
to be mixed before using ; but when applied separately 
the solutions may be used in a more concentrated condition. 
Colouring Matters used in Faper-Making. — The fol- 
lowing substances, used eitber alone or mixed in suitable 
proportions, are employed in. colouring pulp for paper- 
making : — 

Smalts blue. Chrome yellow and orange 

Prussian blue. chrome. 

índigo blue. Orange mineral 

Aniline blues. Copperas, for mixing witb otber 

Aniline reds, including eosine. substances. 

Cochineal, for pink, etc. Venetian red. 

Brazil wood, which imparts either Yellow ochre. 

a fine red or orange-browc Quercitron, or oak-bark. 

colour, according to the treat- Nutgalls. 

ment it has undergone. Lamp black. 
Logwood, for violet colours. 

Bine. — The coarser kind of paper used for packing is 
prepared from rags blued with Índigo, which, when reduced 
to pulp, are not subjected to the process of bleaching. The 
finer kinds of paper are blued in various ways, but the 
chief material used is what is known as artificial ultra- 
marine, of which there are many qualities in the market, 
to which reference is made in another chapter. Prussian 
blue is also used, but this is usually produced directly in 
the beating-engine by adding in solution, 95 parts of sul- 
phate of iron and 100 parts of ferrocyanide of potassium 
(yellow prussiate of potash). Smalts blue, which was for- 
merly much used before the introduction of artificial ultra- 
marine, is still preferred for high-classed papers as the 
colour is more permanent. To obtain smalts in an ex- 
ceedingly fine state of división the best plan is to grind 
the colour in a little water, and then to sepárate the finest 
partióle by the process of elutriation, that is, by diffusing 
the reduced mass through a large volume of water, and 
af ter allowing the larger partióles to subside, pouring off 
the liquor in which the finer partióles are suspended, to a 
sepárate vessel, in which they are allowed to subside. If 


this operation is carefully conducted tlie smalts may be 
obtained in an exceedingly fine state of división, and we 
have found that in this state the colour blends well with 
the pulp, and has little or no disposition to sink througb 
it, but produces a uniform colouring throughout. 

American Conibinations for Colouring. — Hofmann 
gives tbe following examples of tbe combination of colours 
whioh. bave been adopted by American manufacturera : — 

Yettow Gold Envelope of fine quality is made of — 

Bichromate of potash . . . . . . . 10 lbs. 

Nitrate of lead , . 18 ,, 

Orange mineral 56 ,, 

Porous alum 30 ,, 

eacb substance being separately dissolved and added to 
400 lbs. of pulp. 

Orange- red Gold Envelope : — 

Bichromate of potash ....... 7 lbs. 

Nitrate of lead 10^ ,, 

Orange mineral 60 „ 

Porous alum 20 ,, . 

These substances are dissolved separately and added to 
400 lbs. of pulp. 
Buff Envelope of fine deep shade is made from — 

Bichromate of potash 3 lbs. 

Nitrate of lead 5 ,, 

Orange mineral 10 ,, 

American ochre 20 ,, 

Porous alum 30 ,, 

Some half-stuif of red jute bagging. For 400 lbs. of 

Tea-Colour is made from a decoction of quercitron bark, 
tbe liquid being poured into tbe engine, and 2 lbs. of cop- 
peras in solution are added for every gallón of tbe bark 
extract. A little ultramarine may be used to brighten 
tbe colour. 

Drab. — Venetian red, well wasbed, added to a pulp of 
tea-colour made as above will give a fine drab. 

Broivn is composed of several colours, or a very fine 


dark green tea-colour brown, containing tea, buff, drab, 
and ink-grey, may be made of — 

Quercitron. bark liquid 

. 15 gals 

Bicarbonate of soda .... 

. 2 lbs. 

Venetian red 

. 4 „ 

Extract of nutgalls .... 


Copperas ...... 

. . . 18 „ 

Porous alum 

. . . 30 „ 

The above proportions are for 400 lbs. of pulp. 

The large proportion of alum prescribed in all the above 
examples serves as a mordant, and also, with the addition 
of resin soap, for sizing. All the above mixtures should 
be passed through a ÍTo. 60 wire-cloth into the beating- 

Mixing Colouring Materials with Pulp. — It will be 
readily understood that when paper is sized in the pulp, 
as Mr. Hofmann points out, the resinous alumina sur- 
rounds the fibres and prevents the colouring materials 
from penetrating them. In such cases the colouring 
materials are only loosely held, and a portion must there- 
fore be lost in the machine. If added to the pulp before 
it is sized they become thoroughly mixed with the fibres, 
and with them enveloped by the size. The pulp should 
always be coloured before it is sized, except in cases where 
the alum or resin soap would injure the colours, or be 
injured by them. While the pulp is being sized and 
coloured, the finishing touch is given by the engine-man, 
who examines it and empties it into the stuff-chest. 

Colouring Paper for Artificial Flowers. — Davis gives 
the following recipes for colouring one ream of paper of 
médium weight and size, sap colours only being used, and 
principally those containing much colouring matter. The 
gum arabio given in the recipes is dissolved in the sap- 

Blue (dark) 1. — Mix 1 gallón of tincture of Berlin blue 
with 2 ozs. each of wax soap and gum tragacanth. 2. 
Mix -f- gallón of tincture of Berlin blue with 2 ozs. of 
wax soap, and 4£ ozs. of gum tragacanth. 


Crimson. — Mix 1 gallón of liquor of Brazil wood com- 
pounded with bórax, 2 ozs. wax soap and 8-f- ozs. of gum 

Green. — l.TakeJ gallón of liquor of sap-green*, 4j ozs. 
of Índigo rubbed up fine, 1 oz. of wax soap, and 4¿ ozs. of 
gum arabio. 2. \ gallón of sap-green liquor, 4¿ ozs. of 
distilled verdigris, 1 oz. of wax soap, and 4^ ozs. of gum 

Yettow (golden). — Mix 6J ozs. of gamboge with 2 ozs. 
of wax soap. 

Tellow (lemon). — 1. Compound 1 gallón of juice of 
Persian berries with 2 ozs. of wax soap and 8f- ozs. of gum 
arabio. 2. Add to 1 gallón of quercitron liquor, com- 
pounded with solution of tin, 2 ozs. of wax soap, and 
8f ozs. of gum arabio. 

Yettoio (palé). — Mix 1 gallón of fustic, 2 ozs. of wax 
soap, and 8f- ozs. gum arabio. 

Yelloio (green). — Compound 1 gallón of sap-green 
liquor with 2 ozs. each of distilled verdigris and wax soap, 
and 8-f- ozs. of gum arabio. 

Red (dark). — 1 gallón of Brazil-wood liquor, 2 ozs. of 
wax soap, and 8|- ozs. of gum arabio. 

Rose Colour. — Mix 1 gallón of cochineal liquor with 
2 ozs. of wax soap, and 8f ozs. of gum arabio. 

Scarlet. — 1. Mix 1 gallón of Brazil wood liquor com- 
pounded with alum and a solution of copper, with 2 ozs. 
of wax soap, and 8-f- ozs. of gum arabio. 2. Mix 1 gallón 
of cochineal liquor compounded with citrate of tin, with 
2 ozs. of wax soap, and 8-f- ozs. of gum arabio. 

Stains for Glazed Papers. — Owing to the cheapness of 
these papers glue is used in lieu of the more expensive 
gums ; 1 Ib. of glue dissolved in 1¿ gallón of water ; the 
proportions of colouring materials are given for 1 ream of 
paper of médium weight and size. 

Black. — 1. Dissolve 1 Ib. of glue in 1¿ gallón of water ; 
tritúrate this with lampblack (1 Ib.) previously rubbed up 
inrye whiskey ; Frankfort black, 2| lbs. ; Paris blue, 2 ozs.; 
* The berries of Bhamnus catharticus made into a decoction by boiling. 


wax soap, 1 oz. ; then add liquor of logwood, \\ Ib. 2. 
\\ gallón of liquor of logwood compounded with sul- 
phate of iron, 1 oz. of wax soap, and 4¿ ozs. of gum 

Blue (azure). — 1¿ gallón of glue liquor, as before, 
mixed with 1¿ Ib. Berlín blue, 2§ lbs. powdered chalk, 
2j ozs. of light mineral blue, and 2 ozs. of wax soap. 

Blue (dark). — Mix with 1| gallón of glue liquor, 4^ lbs. 
of powdered chalk, 4¿ ozs. of París blue, and 2 ozs. of wax 

Blue (palé). — 1. Mix \ gallón of tincture of Berlín blue 
and 1 oz. of wax soap with 3J ozs. of solution of gum 
tragacanth. 2. Take \\ gallón of glue liquor and mix 
with 4 lbs. of powdered chalk and 2 ozs. each of París blue 
and wax soap. 

Broten (dark). — 1. \\ gallón of glue liquor, mixed 
with 6 lbs. each of colcothar (jewellers' rouge) and Eng- 
lish pink, \\ Ib. of powdered chalk, and 2 ozs. of wax soap. 
2. Dissolve 1 oz. of wax soap and 4J ozs. of gum arabic in 
¿ gallón of good Brazil-wood liquor, and add a like quan- 
tity of tincture of gallnuts. 

Green (copper). — Mix in 1^ gallón of glue liquor 4 lbs. 
of English verdigris, \\ Ib. of powdered chalk, and 4 ozs. 
of wax soap. 

Oreen (palé). — Mix with \\ gallón of glue liquor 1 Ib. of 
Bremen blue, 8J ozs. of whiting, 1 oz. of palé chrome yel- 
low, and 2 ozs. of wax soap. 

Lemon Colour. — Mix in 1¿ gallón of glue liquor 13 ozs. 
of lemon chrome, 2 lbs. of powdered chalk, and 2 ozs. of 
wax soap. 

Orange-Yeüoio. — Mix in 1¿ gallón of glue liquor 2 lbs. 
of lemon chrome, 1 Ib. of Turkish minium, 2 lbs. of white 
lead, and 2 ozs. of wax soap. 

Red (cherry). — Mix in 1¿ gallón of glue liquor 8| lbs. 
of Turkey red, previously mixed up with ¿ gallón of 
Brazil-wood liquor, and 2 ozs. of wax soap. 

Red (dark). — Mix f gallón of Brazil-wood liquor with 
wax soap 1 oz., and gum arabic 4J ozs. 


Red (palé). — To lj gallón of glue liquor is to be added 
8¿ lbs. of Turkey red previously rubbed up with 2 ozs. of 
wax soap. 

Violet. — 4J ozs. of gum arabio, and 1 oz. of wax soap 
are to be mixed with \ gallón of good logwood liquor. 
When the gum is dissolved, mix with it enough potash to 
form a mordant. 

Stains for Morocco Papers. — For 1 ream of paper of 
médium size and weight the following recipes are re- 
commended : — 

Black. — 8-f- ozs. of good parchment shavings are dis- 
solved in 1 \ gallón of water ; into this liquid is to be 
stirred lampblack, 1 Ib., Frankfort black, 3 lbs., and 
París blue, lf oz. 

Blue (dark). — Dissolve parchment shavings, as befo re, 
and mix in 8| lbs. of white lead and 4J lbs. of Paris 

Blue (light). — Dissolve parchment shavings, as be- 
fore, and mix in 8f lbs. of white lead and 2| ozs. of 
Paris blue. 

Green (dark). — Dissolve 13 ozs. of parchment shavings 
in 2J gallons of water, and mix in 10 lbs. of Schweinfurth 

Green (palé). — Prepare solution of parchment as in the 
last, and mix with 8f lbs. of Schweinfurth green and 1 Ib. 
of fine Paris blue. 

Órange-Yellow. — 8-f- ozs. of parchment shavings are to 
be dissolved in 1J gallón of water, and then mixed with 
1¿ Ib. of lemon chrome, 8|- ozs. of orange chrome, and 1 Ib. 
of white lead. 

Red (dark). — To the same quantity of parchment liquor 
as the last is to be added 7-f- lbs. of fine cinnabar, and 1 Ib. 
of Turkey red. 

Red (palé). — To the same quantity of parchment liquor 
add 8f- ozs. of Turkey red. 

Violet (light). — To 1J gallón of parchment liquor add 
i\ lbs. of white lead, 13 ozs. of light mineral blue, and8f 
ozs. of scarlet lake. 


Violet (dark). — To 1^ gallón of parchment liquor add 
3-f- lbs. of white lead, 1 Ib. of palé mineral blue, and 
8-f- ozs. of scarlet lake. 

Yellow (palé). — To \\ gallón of parchment liquor add 
2 lbs. of ligbt obróme yellow and 8f- ozs. of wbite lead. 

Stains for Satin Fapers. — Por eacb ream of paper of 
médium weight and size the following recipes are 
given : — 

Blue (azure). — 13 ozs. of parchment are dissolved in 
2J gallons of water and mixed with 3 lbs. of B remen 
blue, 1-f- Ib. of English mineral blue, and 4J ozs. of wax 

Blue (light). — 8-| ozs. of parchment are to be dissolved 
in 1 \ gallón of water, and to be mixed with light chrome 
yellow, 13 ozs. ; colcothar, 6J ozs. ; Frankfort black, 2 ozs. ; 
powdered chalk 3 lbs., and wax soap, 3J ozs. 

Brown (reddish). — \\ gallón of parchment liquor as the 
Last, to which is added yellow ochre, 1 Ib. ; light chrome 
yellow, 4| ozs. ; white lead, 1 Ib. ; red ochre, 1 oz., and 
wax soap, 3J ozs. 

Broten (light). — 1¿ gallón of parchment liquor, as be- 
fore, to which is added 13 ozs. of light chrome yellow, 
6J ozs. of colcothar, 2 ozs. of Frankfort black, 3 lbs. of 
powdered chalk, and 3^ ozs. of wax soap. 

Grey (light). — 1^ gallón of parchment liquor is mixed 
with 4¿ lbs. of powdered chalk, 8f ozs. of Frankfort black, 
1 oz. of París blue, and 3^ ozs. of wax soap. 

Grey (bluish). — To the above quantity of parchment 
liquor add 4¿ lbs. of powdered chalk, 1 Ib. of light mineral 
blue, 4¿ ozs. of English green, lf- oz. of Frankfort black, 
and 3J ozs. of wax soap. 

Green (brownish). — To the same quantity of parchment 
liquor add Schweinfurth green, 1 Ib. ; mineral green, 
8f ozs. ; burnt umber and English pink, of each 4£ ozs. ; 
whiting, 1 Ib., and wax soap, 3J ozs. 

Green (light). — To the same quantity of parchment 
liquor add English green and powdered chalk, of each 
2f- lbs., and 3¿ ozs. of wax soap. 


Lemon Colour. — To the same quantity of parcliment 
liquor add lemon chrome, \\ Ib. ; white lead 1 Ib., and 
wax soap, 3¿ ozs. 

Orange- Yelioiv.— Parchment liquor as before, 1¿ gallón, 
to which is added lemon chrome, 4¿ lbs. ; Turkey red, 
8-f- ozs. ; white lead, 1 Ib., and wax soap, 3^ ozs. 

Rose Colour. — 1¿ gallón of parchment liquor as before, 
to which. is added f gallón of rose colour prepared from 
Brazil wood and chalk, and 6J lbs. of wax soap. 

Violet (light). — 1^ gallón of parchment liquor as above, 
mixed with light mineral blue and scarlet lake, of each 
1J Ib. ; white lead, 1 Ib., and wax soap, 3¿ ozs. 

White. — To 1^ gallons of parchment liquor is added fine 
Kremnitz white, 8-f- lbs., Bremen blue, 4¿ ozs., and wax 
soap, 3^ ozs. 

Silver White. — 1^- gallón of parchment liquor mixed 
with Kremnitz white, 8f lbs., Frankfort black, 8f- ozs., and 
wax soap, 3^- ozs. 

Palé Yelioiv. — 1£ gallón of parchment liquor, to which 
is added 41 lbs. of ligbt chrome yellow, 1 Ib. of powdered 
chalk, and 3^ ozs. of wax soap,. 



"Waterprooí Paper. — Scoffern and Tidcombe's process. — Dr. "Wríght's 
process for preparing Cupro-Ammonium. — Jouglet's process. — 
Waterproof Composition for Paper. — Toughening Paper. — Morfit's 
process. — Transparent Paper, — Tracing Paper. — Varnished Paper. — 
Oiled Paper. — Lithographic Paper. — Cork Paper. — New Japanese 
Paper. — Blotting Paper.— Parchment Paper — Test Papera. 

Waterproof Paper. — Scoffern and Tidcombe's Process. — 
In this process, for which a patent was granted in 1875, 
the well-known solubility of cellulose in cupro-ammonium 
is taken advantage of , for the purpose of producing water- 
proof paper by destroying its absorptive properties. After 
the paper is made and dried in the usual way by the paper- 
niaking machine, it is led through a bath of cupro-ammo- 
nium, having a roll or rollers therein, or in connection 
therewith, either on reels on which the paper is reeled, or 
from the continuous web of paper itself directly from the 
machine, and from this bath it is led o ver a table of wire- 
cloth, or india-rubber, or over a series of rollers forming a 
table, under which steam-pipes are placed for the purpose of 
" setting," or partially drying, the web ; it is then led over 
suitable reels in a hot-air chamber to season or finish the 
treated paper, which is then cut as the paper runs, by the 
ordinary cutting machine, into the required sheets. The 
chamber in which the paper is treated is ventilated as 
follows : — Over the bath and hot-air chamber is another 
chamber having openings leading into the hot-air cham- 
ber, and at these openings a steam-blast, or fan-blast, is 
applied, which ventilates the chamber in which the paper 


is heated, and drives the ammonia into contact with either 
sulphurous or hydrochloric acid, and by this means the 
ammonia is recovered in a solid form which would other- 
wise be wasted. 

The inventors also incorpórate hydrated oxide of copper 
with paper pulp, so that after it is made into paper it has 
only to be subjected to the action of ammonia, as ordi- 
narily done, or to the action of gaseous ammonia mingled 
with steam. Brown papers are strengthened and glazed 
by passing them through a bath of pulp containing cupro- 
ammonium, either with or without pitch, tar, or other 
resinous matters. It is well known that by passing paper 
through a cupro-ammonium bath it is surface dissolved 
and glazed by its own material, and if it be desired to 
unite two or more sheets together this is the most econo- 
mical way of conducting the operation ; but if it be 
desired to strengthen and glaze a single thickness of paper 
or millboard, it is considered undesirable to make the 
glaze by dissolving a portion of the paper itself . In this 
case the inventors pass the web or sheet of paper through 
a bath, not of cupro-ammonium simply, but of cupro-am- 
monium in which ligneous material is already dissolved ; 
and when the glazing of brown paper is to be effected, 
they prefer to fortify the bath with tar, pitch, marine 
glue, or other resinous materials. By this process, panels 
and tiles may be manufactured from millboard, or thick 
sheets of ligneous material made from pulp already incor- 
porated with hydrated oxide of copper. The panels, etc., 
are passed, by means of an endless web, through a bath of 
ammoniacal solution, or the vapour of ammonia and steam, 
and the tiles or panels may be surface-glazed by exposing 
them while moist to the action of fluo-silicic acid gas, by 
which silica is deposited in the material and on its surface. 

Dr= Wright's Process for preparing Cupro-ammonium. 
— This process, which has been adopted at the Willesden 
Paper Mills, may be thus briefly described : — In the first 
part of the process, metallic copper, in small lumps, solid 
metal, or clippings, etc., is covered with a solution of am- 


monia ín water, or with a weak solution of cupro-ammo- 
nitan hydrate, containing an amount of free ammonia in 
solution dependent upon the strength of the copper solu- 
tion ultimately required ; a current of air is then caused to 
pass through the whole by means of an air-pump, in such 
a manner that the bubbles of air pass over and amongst 
the fragments of metallic copper, which, if in small parti- 
óles, may be advantageously kept in suspensión by any 
convenient agitator. In a f ew hours the liquid becomes 
saturated with as much copper as it can dissolve, the rate 
of solution varying with the f orm of the vessel containing 
the materials, the strength of the ammoniacal fluid, and 
the rate of the passage of the stream of air. To carry 
this process into effect, metallic copper in fragments of 
convenient size is loosely piled inside a vertical tube or 
tower, and water is allowed to trickle from a pipe over the 
copper so as to keep its surface moist. At the base of the 
tower a current of air, mixed with ammonia gas, is caused 
to pass into the tower, so as to ascend upwards, meeting 
the descending water as it trickles over the copper. TJnder 
these conditions the copper becomes oxidised, and the 
water dissolves firstly the ammonia gas, and, secondly, the 
oxide of copper f ormed, so that the liquor which passes out 
at the base of the tower is a solution of cupro-ammonium 
hydrate, the strength of which depends on the proportions 
subsisting between the bulk of the mass of copper, the 
quantity of water trickling over it, and the amount of 
air and ammonia gas supplied in a given time. As an 
example of the method of carrying out the above process, 
the inventor proceeds as follows : — He constructs a vertical 
iron tower which may be ten inches in internal diameter 
and ten feet in height, and this is filled with scraps of 
sheet copper. On this water is allowed to trickle, whilst 
at the base of the tower a mixture of air and gaseous am- 
monia is allowed to pass upwards through the tower, by 
which a solution of cupro-ammonium is formed, which is 
allowed to trickle out at the base of the tower into a tank. 
It has been found advantageous to use a series of towers > 


allowing the air and ammonia gas that pass out at the 
top of the first tower to enter at the bottom of the second 
tower, and so on successively throughout the series. The 
weaker solutions produced in the later towers of the series 
are used instead of water in the earlier towers, so that 
practically all the ammonia gas originally used is obtained 
in the form of cupro-ammonium hydrate solution, issuing 
from ¿he first tower of the series. 

The cupro-ammonium process, as carried on at the Wil- 
lesden Mills, is applied to ropes, netting, etc., by immers- 
ing them in a solution of cupro-ammonium, which, when 
they are subsequently dried, gives them a varnished ap- 
pearance, while at the same time, the libres having become 
cemented together by the action of the cupro-ammonium, 
their strength is increased. By the same process paper, 
canvas, and other manufactured articles are rendered 
waterproof. A concentrated solution of cupro-ammonium 
may also be used for securing envelopes, whereby the 
adhesión of the surfaces of the paper is rendered perfect, 
and the only means of opening the envelope is by cutting 
or tearing the paper. 

Jouglet's Process. — This process, which with modifica- 
tions has been adopted by others, is based on the solvent 
action on cellulose of a solution of oxide of copper in am- 
monia. A quantity of this solution is placed in a tank, 
and the paper rapidly passed over and in contact with 
the surface of the liquid, by means of suitable rollers in 
motion. The paper is af terwards pressed between a pair of 
rolls and dried by the ordinary drying cylinders. The 
brief contact of the paper with the liquid occasions just 
sufiicient action on the cellulose to have the efíect of an 
impermeable varnish. 

Waterproof Composition for Paper. — The following 
composition for rendering paper waterproof for roofing 
and flooring purposes has been patented in America.* By 
preference good, hard manilla paper is selected, and a 
composition of the following ingredients is applied with a 

* Paper Trade Journal, New York, April 20th, 1889. 



brush, or by means of rollers : — Glue, 2 lbs., is dissolved 
in 3 gallons of crude petroleum, of about the density of 
33° B. at 60° F. ; 3o gallons of resin oil, and about half 
a pint of oil of eucalyptus, which will have the eíFect of 
destroying the objectionable odour of the resin oil. To 
this mixture is further added about 4 gallons of any ordi- 
nary drier. The above ingredients are to be thoroughly 
mixed by agitation, and the composition brushed over 
the paper in a room heated to about 80° F., and allowed 
to dry. It is said that paper thus coated will exelude 
wind, cold, dampness, and dust. 

Toughening Paper. — Morfifs Process. — The object of 
the following process is to produce a paper " toughened in 
a degree and quality distinctively from any other in the 
rnarket," and is applicable to all kinds of paper, but more 
particularly to those made with inferior grades of pulp for 
printing newspapers, and for wrapping papers. The means 
employed are the seaweeds which form glutinous liquors 
with water, such as Carrageen, or Irish moss, Agar-agar, 
and the like. Any of such seaweeds tnay be employed, 
either separately or mixed with another of its kind, accord- 
ing to the judgment of the operator and the sort of paper 
to be manufactured, but some seaweeds are superior to 
others for this purpose. The raw seaweed is first washed, 
and then boiled with water until all the soluble matter has 
been extracted, and the resulting liquor is then strained. 
The hot strained liquor forms the bath in which sheets of 
paper or pulp are to be treated. If desired, resin soap and 
aluminous cake may be added to the glutinous liquor, but 
these " serve rather to size and make the paper rustle than 
increase its toughness." If the paper is to be treated in 
the form of sheets or web, it is to be passed, as it leaves 
the wire-cloth in which it is formed, through a hot solu- 
tion of the seaweed alone, or mixed with resinous soap 
and aluminous cake, and dried by means of suitable machi- 
nery. To apply it to the pulp, the latter is to be difíused 
in the hot liquor, and the sheets or web made therefrom in 
the usual manner. The proper proportions of seaweed, 


resinous soap, and aluminous cake will yary with the kind 
of pulp and sheets under treatment, and must be adj usted 
as the judgment of the operator determines best for each 

Transparent Paper. — There are several methods of 
rendering paper transparent, amongst which the following 
has been recommended : — 

Boiled and bleached linseed oil .... 120 parts. 

Lead tumings 6 ,, 

Oxide of zinc . . . . . . . . 30 „ 

Venice turpentine 3 , , 

The above ingredients are placed in an iron or other suit- 
able vessel, in which they are thoroughly mixed, and the 
whole then boiled for about eight hours. The mixture is 
then allowed to cool, when it is again well stirred and the 
following substances added : — White copal, 30 parts ; gum 
sandarac, 2 parts, these ingredients being well incor- 
porated by stirring. 

Tracing Paper.— Sheets of smooth unsized paper are 
laid fíat on a table, and then carefully coated on one side 
only with a varnish composed of Canadá balsam and oil of 
turpentine. The brush used for this purpose must be a 
clean sash tool, and when the first sheet has been var- 
nished in this way it is to be hung across a line to dry. 
The operation is then to be applied to fresh sheets in suc- 
cession until the required quantity of paper has been 
treated. In the event of one coating of the varnish not 
rendering the paper suniciently transparent, a second coat- 
ing may be applied when the first coating has become 
quite dry. 

Varnished Paper. — When it is desired to varnish the 
surface of paper, card-work, pasteboard, etc., it must first 
be rendered non-absorbent with two or three coatings of 
size, which will also prevent the varnish from acting upon 
any colour or design which may be impressed upon the 
paper. The size may be made by dissolving isinglass in 
boiling water, or by boiling clean parchment cuttíngs in 
water until a clear solution is formed, which, after strain- 


ing, is ready for use. If necessary, for very delicate pur- 
poses, the size thus prepared may be clarified with a little 
white of egg. The size should be applied, as in the former 
case, with a clean sash tool, but the touch should be light, 
especially for the first coating, lest the inks or colours 
should run or become bleared. When dry, the varnish 
may be applied in the usual way. 

Oiled Paper. — Sheets of paper are brushed over with 
boiled linseed oil, and then hung up to dry. Paper thus 
prepared is waterproof, and has been used as a substitute 
for bladder and gut skins for covering jam pots, etc., but 
the introduction of parchment paper has almost entirely 
superseded it. 

Lithographic Paper. — This paper, which is written 
upon with lithographic ink, may be prepared by either 
of the following formulse : — 1. Take starch, 6 ozs. ; gum 
arabio, 2 ozs. ; alum, 1 oz. Make a strong solution of each 
separately in hot water, then mix the whole and strain the 
liquor through gauze. It must be applied to one side of 
the paper while still warm by means of a soft brush or 
sponge ; a second or third coating may be given as the 
preceding one becomes dry. The paper is finally pressed 
to render it smooth. 2. The paper must first receive three 
coats of thin size, one coat of good white starch, and 
one coat of a weak solution of gamboge in water. The 
ingredients are to be applied cold with a sponge, and each 
coat allowed to dry before the next is applied. 

Cork Paper. — A paper under this title was patented in 
America by Messrs. H. Felt and Co. ; it is prepared by coat- 
ing one side of a thick, soft, and flexible paper with a mix- 
ture composed of glue, 20 ; gelatine, 1 ; and molasses, 3 
parts, and covering with finely-powdered cork, which is 
afterwards lightly rolled in. The paper thus prepared is 
said to be used for packing bottles. 

New Japanese Paper. — According to the Bulletin du 
Musée Commercial, a native of Japan has recently invented 
a new process by which paper may be made from seaweed. 
The paper thus made is said to be very strong, almost 


untearable, and is sufficiently transparent to admit of its 
being used as a substitute f or window glass ; it takes all 
colours well, and in many respects resembles oíd window 
glass. — Board of Trade Journal. 

Blotting Faper. — Tbis paper, requiring to be very ab- 
sorbente is not sized, but is prepared with starcb alone, 
wbieb, wbile holding the fibres togetber, does not affect 
tbe absorbent property of tbe paper. Dunbar gives a 
recipe for making blotting paper wbicb bas been f ound 
successful, and from wbicb we make a few extracts. In 
selecting materials for blotting, of bigh-class, cotton rags 
of tbe weakest and tenderest description procurable sbould 
be cbosen. Boil tbem witb 4 lbs. of caustic soda to tbe 
cwt. — tbat is, if you bave no facilities for boiling tbem in 
lime alone. Wben f urnisbed to tbe breaking-engine, wasb 
tbe rags tborougbly bef ore letting down tbe roll ; wben 
tbis is done, reduce tbem to balf-stuff, and as soon as 
possible convey tbem to tbe potcber. Wben up to tbe 
desired colour, drain immediately. Tbe breaker-plate 
sbould be sbarp for blottings, and tbe beater-roll and píate 
also in good order, and tbe stuff beaten smartly for not 
more tban an bour and a balf in tbe engine. For pink 
blottings furnisb two-tbirds wbite cottons and one-tbird 
of Turkey reds if tbey can be got, or dye witb cocbineal to 
desired sbade ; empty down to tbe macbine bef ore starting, 
and see tbat tbe vacuum pumps are in good condition. 
ítemove weigbts from coucb-roll, and if tbere are lif ting 
screws raise tbe top coucb-roll a little. Take sbake-belt 
off, as tbe sbake will not be required. Press ligbt witb 
first press, and bave tbe top roll of tbe second press covered 
witb an ordinary jacket similar to coucb-roll jacket. Dry 
bard, and pass tbrougb one calender witb weigbts off, and 
roll as ligbt as possible, just enougb to smootb sligbtly. 

Farchmeut Paper. — Tbis paper, wbicb is extensively 
used for covering jars and pots for pickles and jams, is 
prepared, according to tbe process of Poumaréde and 
Figuier, as follows : — Wbite unsized paper is dipped for 
balf a minute in strong sulpburic acid, specific gravity 


1'842, and afterwards in water containing a little am- 
monia. By Graine's process (1857) unsized paper is 
plunged for a few seconds into sulphuric acid diluted with 
half to a quarter of its bulk of water (the acid being added 
to the water), and the solution allowed to cool until of the 
same temperature as the air. The paper is afterwards 
washed with. weak ammonia. This process, which has 
been extensively worked by Messrs. De la Rué and Co., 
produces a far better material than the foregoing. 

Mili and Card-board. — In the manufacture of boards 
refuse materials of all kinds that occur in the paper-mill 
may be used, and these are sorted according to the quality 
of boards for which they are best suited. After being well 
beaten the resulting mass is mixed with suitable propor- 
tions of rag pulp, kaolin, chalk, white clays, &c. There 
are four principal processes by which boards are manu- 
factured, namely, 

1. By superposing several sheets of paper and causing 
them to unite by a sizing material. 

2. By superposing several wet leaves at the time of 

3. By moulds provided with thick deckles. 

4. By special machines similar to those used for making 
continuous webs of paper, but without a drying cylinder, 
the sheets being dried in the open air or in a heated room. 

The third method is only adopted for boards of modérate 
thickness, as an excess of pulp would render the draining 

Making Paper or Cardboard with two Faces by Ordi- 
nary Machine. — By this process, recently patented by 
Mr. A. Diana, all kinds of thin or thick paper or cardboard 
are manufactured with two düferent faces by means of the 
ordinary paper-machine, having a single fíat table with a 
single wire-gauze web, without requiring a second me- 
tallic web. For this purpose the two pulps are prepared 
separately, and one is caused to pass on to the web in an 
almost liquid condition ; this is allowed to drain off suffi- 
ciently, and the second pulp (also in a liquid condition) is 


then passed uníformly upon the whole surface of tlie pre- 
vious layer. Tlie water drains off f rom this layer through 
the first layer, and the paper or cardboard is thus dírectly 
formed with two different faces, the subsequent operations 
being as ordinarily employed in paper-making. The space 
between two of the suction cases employed for drawing off 
the water in the pulp is a suitable point for the distribu- 
tion of tbe diluted second pulp, which is almost liquid. 

Test Papers. — These papers, which are extensively used 
both in tbe laboratory and tbe f actory, for determining tbe 
presence of acids or alkalies in various liquids, may be pre- 
pared as follows : — Litmus paper, for detecting tbe pre- 
sence of acids, is prepared by first making an infusión of 
litmus. Reduce to a paste witb a pestle and mortar 1 oz. 
of litmus, adding a little boiling water ; tben add more 
boiling water — from 3 to 4 ozs. in all — and put tbe mix- 
ture into a flask and boil for a few minutes ; finally, add 
more boiling water to make up balf a pint, and wben cold 
filter tbe liquor. To prepare tbe test paper, a sufncient 
quantity of tbe liquid being poured into a fíat disb, pieces 
of unsized paper are steeped in tbe blue liquid, so tbat all 
surfaces may be tborougbly wetted ; tbe paper is tben to 
be bung up by one córner to drain, and af terwards dried. 
As many sheets of paper as may be required sbould be 
treated in tbis way, and tbe sbeets afterwards cut up into 
convenient strips for use. Red litmus paper, for detecting 
sligbt traces of alkali in liquids 3 may be prepared by 
dipping a glass rod, previously dipped into a very dilute 
solution of sulpburic acid, into one-balf of tbe above in- 
fusión, repeating tbe operation cautiously until tbe liquid 
turns from blue to a sligbtly red tint. Unsized paper 
wben dipped in tbis will acquire a reddisb colour wbicb is 
very sensitive to tbe action of weak alkaline liquors, and 
tbe vapour of ammonia restores tbe blue colour instantly. 
Turmeric paper is prepared by dipping unsized paper in a 
decoction of turmeric — about 2 ozs. to tbe pint. Paper 
steeped in tbis solution and dried acquires a yellow colour, 
wbicb turns brown in alkaline solutions. 


Bentley and Jackson's Drum Washer, — Drying Cylinder. — Self-Acting 
Dry Felt Begulator. — Paper Cutting Machine. — Single "Web Winding 
Machine. — Cooling and Damping Eolls. — Eeversing or Píate Grlazing 
Calender. — Píate Planing Machine. — Eoll Bar Planing Machine. — 
Washing Cylinder for Eag Engine. — Bleach Pump. — Three-roll 
Smoothing Presses. — Back- water Pump. — Web Grlazing Calender. — 
Eeeling Machine. — Web Eipping Machine. — Eoeckner's Clarifier. — 
Marshall's Perfecting Engine. 

Apart f rom tlie meclianical contrivances which are re- 
ferred to in various parts of this work, in which their 
application is explained, it will be necessary to direct 
attention to certain machines and appliances which are 
adopted at some of the more advanced paper-mills in this 
country and in America ; but since the various makers oí 
paper-makers' machinery are constan tly introducing im- 
provements to meet the requirements of the manufacturer, 
we must refer the reader to these firms for fuller informa- 
tion than can be given in the limited scope of this treatise. 
Many of the improvements in paper-making machinery 
consist in modifications — sometimes of a very important 
nature — in the construction of certain parts of a machine, 
whereby the efficiency of the machine as a whole is in 
some cases considerably augmented. Without offering 
any critical remarks upon the merits of the respective 
improvements which have been introduced, it will be 
sufficient to direct attention to the manufacturera own 
description of the principal features of the special me- 
chanical contrivance which he produces for the use of the 


paper-maker. It may also be said that innumerable 
patents have been obtained for various improvements in 
machinery, or parts of machines, engines, etc., which 
can readily be referred to at the Library of the Patent 
Office, or any of the public libraries throughout the King- 

Bentley and Jackson's Drum-Washer. — This drum- 
washe*, for use in the rag-engine, is shown in Fig. 43. 
It has cast-iron ends, strong copper buckets, shaft, stands, 
lifting-gear, and driving-wheel, but instead of the drum 

Fig. 43. 

being covered with the ordinary strong brass backing-wire, 
it is covered with their improved " honey-comb " backing- 
plates, over which the fine wire is wrapped as usual. The 
honey-comb backing consists of tough rolled brass or 
copper plates, curved to suit the diameter of the drum, 
and secured to its ends by cross-bars. It is practicably 
indestructible, strengthens the drum, and by maintaining 
its cylindrical f orm, adds considerably to the durability of 
the fine covering-wire. 

Drying Cylinders. — These cylinders, by the same firm, 
for which patents were obtained in 1872 and 1887, 
are made with concave and convex ends, the latter type 
being shown in Fig. 44. The cylinder body is made 



of hard cast-iron, turned and polished on outside surface. 
The ends and trunnions are of tough cast iron, turned to 
fit into their places, and there secured by bolts and nuts 
by a patented method, whereby no bolts (excepting for 
the manhole) are put through the metal, an unbroken 
surf ace is preserved, and the annoyance of leakage through 
the bolt-holes is avoided. A manhole and cover is fitted 
to all cylinders- 3 feet in diameter and upwards, and a 

Fig. 44. 

water-lifter and pipe to remove the condensed steam. 
The trunnions are bored to receive nozzles or junctions 
for admitting steam, and the whole, when completed, 
is carefully balanced and tested by steam pressure to 
35 lbs. per square inch. The firm state that they have 
made cylinders from 2 to 10 feet in diameter by this 

Self-acting Dry Felt Segulator. — This contrivance, 
which is manufactured by Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, 
is represented in front and side elevation in Fig. 45. a 
is the framing of the paper-machine, b the felt-rollers, c 
the dry felt ; d is a slide carrying one end of the felt 
guide-roller b ; c is a shaf t across the machine, with a 
pulley f, two-keyed on one end, and a bevel pinion two- 
keyed on the other end. The pulley f and pinion h are 



keyed together, and run loóse upon the shaft g ; 1 is a 
bevel-wlieel, gearing into the pinions h and 2. The 
wheel 1 is connected by a spindle and a pair of bevel- 
wheels to a screw e, which works through a threaded 

Fig. 45. 

bush. When the machine is at work, if the felt c should 
run on one side, it will pass between the pulley r and the 
guide-roller b, causing the pulley to revolve, and turning 
the screw e in the threaded bush, thereby moving the 
slide fixing d and the guide-roller b, which causes the felt 
to run back. Should the felt run to the other side, it will 
run in contact with the pulley f 2, and thus reverse the 
motion of the guide-roller b. 

Paper-cutting Machine. — This machine (Fig. 46), 
which is manufactured by the same firm, is constructed to 
cut from one to eight webs simultaneously, in sheets of 
any required length, from 8 to 60 inches. It is built on 
the " Verny " principie, and its operation is as follows : — 
The webs of papcr from the reel-rolls are carried by an 
endless felt, and the paper is drawn off the rolls by 
travelling cast-iron gripper beams, which firmly grasp the 


felt and the webs of paper to be cut, the travel of the 
beams being equal to the length of the sheet of paper to 
be cut. When the required length of the sheet is drawn 

Fig. 46. 

from the rolls, a cast-iron clamp, placed cióse to the dead 
cross-cut knife, descends and firmly holds the paper until 
the movable cross-cut knife has cut off the sheets, which 
fall on a second endless felt, and are placed by the catchers 
in the usual manner. As soon as the sheets are cut, the 
clamp is released, and the travelling-grippers are again 
ready to seize the paper and repeat the operation. 

Single Web Winding Machine. — This machine (Fig. 47) 
is constructed for preparing webs of paper for continuous 
printing-presses. The roll of paper to be prepared is 
carried by brass bearings having vertical and horizontal 
screw adjustments attached to standards mounted on a 
slide, and movable by a screw transversely on the machine 
to accommodate the deekle edges. The paper web is taken 
through a pair of iron draw-rolls, carried by brass bearings, 
fitted in cast-iron stands ; there are two pairs of ripping- 
knives withbosses, springs, and collars, mounted on turned 
wrought-iron shafts running in brass bearings carried by 
cast-iron stands ; a wrought-iron leading-roll and carrying 


brackets fitted with brass bushes ; a copper measuring roll 
counter, geared to indícate up to 10,000 yards, with dis- 
engaging apparatus to cease measuring when tbe paper 
breaks ; a friction-drum 2 feet in diameter, made of wood, 

Fig. 47. 

mounted on cast-iron rings, and a wrought-iron sbaft, all 
carefully turned and balanced ; two cast-iron swivelling 
arms, witb brass sliding bearings to carry tbe mandrel on 
wbicb tbe prepared web is to be wound, witb screws, 
struts, wbeels and sbaft to regúlate tbe angular pressure 
of tbe roll of paper against tbe wood drum, according to 
its weigbt and tbe quantity of paper. 

Cooling and Damping Rolls. — Tbe illustration (Fig. 48) 
represents an apparatus, constructed by Messrs. Bentley 
and Jackson, for cooling and damping paper after leaving 
tbe drying cylinders and before passing tbrougb tbe 
calenders. It consists of two brass rolls bored and fitted 
witb cast-iron ends, brass nozzles, and regulating taps, 
tbrougb wbicb tbe rolls are supplied witb a constant flow 
of water. Tbe rolls are carried by cast-iron standards, 
fitted witb brass steps and cast-iron caps. Jets of steam 



are blown on each of the rolls from a perforated copper 
pipe running parallel with, and at a little distance from, 
the body of the roll. The steam is condensed on the cold 

Fig. 48. 

surfaces of the brass rolls, and absorbed by the web of 
paper, which passes around and in contact with their sur- 
faces, and is consequently damped on both sides. The 
perforated steam-pipes are enclosed by copper hoods, to 
prevent the steam from spreading, and the supply of 
steam is regulated by ordinary brass valves or cocks. The 
rolls are geared together by a pair of spur-wheels, and 
driven by a pulley of suitable diameter. 

Heversing or Plate-glazing Calender. — This machine, 

which is shown in 
Figs. 49 and 50, is 
also made by the 
firm referred to, 
and consists of two 
hammered iron 
rolls, each about 
twelve inches in 
diameter, of any 
suitable length, care- 
fully turned and car- 
ried by strong cast- 
The top roll 

í%. 49. 
iron standards, fitted wíth bell-metal steps 

is provided with setting-down blocks and brasses, com~ 





135= . ¡ 1 N 

pound levers and weights to regúlate the pressure re- 

quired. The two rolls are geared together by strong 

shrouded wheels, and driven 

by a strong cast-iron spur- 

wheel and pinion, a driving- 

shaft, fast and loóse pulleys, 

carried by cast-iron stands 

and pedestals fitted with 

brass steps. The machine is 

fitted with two metal feed- 

tables, and a self-acting ap- 

paratus for returning the 

sheets to the rolls, and a 

handle-lever, slide-bar, and 

strap-forks for starting and reversing. 

Plate-planing Machine — This machine, which ismanu° 
factured by Messrs. Bryan Donkin and Co., of Ber- 
mondsey, is shown in Fig. 51. By its aid the plates of 

Fig. 50. 

Fifí. 51. 

rag-engines can be sharpened without being taken to 
pieces. The slide of the machine is made exactly like the 
roll-bar planing machine (see below), and is so arranged 
that it can easily be taken off and used for sharpening 

Roll-Bar Planing Machine In the accompanying 


engraving (Fig. 52) is shown an apparatus fitted to a 

rag-engine for sharpening rag-engine roll-bars, and it 
will be seen that by means of it the operation can be per- 



Fig. 53 


as mañufactured by 

formecl without removing tlie roll from its usual position. 

The edges of the bars are first 

planed by a tool supplied by 

the manufacturers to render 

the whole cylindrical before 

sharpeuing them ; the bevelled 

sides are then planed by suit- 

able tools, two of which accom- 

pany the apparatus. This 

method of sharpening renders 

the bars unif orm in shape, the 

roll is kept in better working 

order, and it can be dressed 

in considerably less time, and 

at less expense, than can be 

done by chipping by hand. 

Washing-Cylinder forHag- 
Engine. — The illustration at 

represents the machine 
Bryan Donkin 
and Co. It is so made 
that the water is delivered 
on the driving side of the 
rag-engine, thus avoiding 
any trough across the en- 
gine, and admitting of the 
midfeather being thin, as 
is usual in cast-iron en- 
gines. It is all self-con- 
tained, and the driving 
apparatus is wholly on the 
outside of the engine. 
The raising and lowering 
are effected by a worm 
and worm-wheel, so that 
the cylinder will stop at 
any point required. 

Bleach Fump. — In the Fig- 54. 

accompanying engraving (Fig. 54) is shown a pump, 



manufacturad by Bryan Donlíin and Co., which is ar- 
ranged expressly f or the purpose of pumping up bleach- 


Fig. 55. 

Each pump is all self-contained, and merely 

requires a drum and 
strap to drive it. 
The live and dead 
riggers upon tbe 
pump allow it to be 
started and stopped 
at pleasure. " In all 
paper-mills," say tbe 
manufacturera, "tbe 
bleach-liquor sbould 
be used overand o ver 
again, not only to 
save bleacb, which 
amounts to a con- 
siderable sum in the 
^g- 56, course of a year, 

but also to keep the paper olean." 

Three-Boll Smoothing-Presses. — The engraving (Fig. 



55) shows a 
damp smooth- 
ing-press, with 
rolls for smooth- 
ing tlie paper 
between the two 
sections of dry- 
ing cylinders 
of a paper-ma- 
cliine. Themak- 
ers are Messrs. 
Bryan Donkin 
and Co. A three- 
roll smooth- 
ing press, for 
smoothing the 
paper at the end 
of a paper-ma- 
same makers, is 
Fump — Theen- 
graving (Fig. 
57) shows apair 
of back or size- 
water pumps, 
by Bertrams, 
Limited. The 
barréis are of 
cast-iron, lined 
with copper. 
The suction and 
discharge val ves 
are each con- 
ber with covers, 

Fig. 57. 


so that every valve could be easily got at by simply re- 
leasing the cover. The valve-seats are of brass, with brass 
guards and rubber clacks. The plungers are of brass, 
with cup-leathers. All is fitted up on a cast-iron sole- 
plate, with tall standards, disc-cranks, and driving-pulley 
between franies. 

Web-glazing Calender. — Fig. 58 represents Bertrams' 
web-glazing calender, Avith steam-engine attached. The 
illustration shows the machine in front elevation. The 

Fig. 58. 

steam-engine is specially designed for this class of work, 
having two cylinders 10 inches in diameter by 16 inches 
stroke, fitted on a double-hooded sole-plate, with double- 
throw crank-shaft, fly-wheel, two eccentrics, wrought-iron 
piston-rods, connecting-rods and valve-rods, steam and 
exhaust branch pipes with one inlet valve, lubricators, 



and the cylinders cased 
with teak legging and 
brass hoops. 

Reeling Machine. 
— One form of reeling 
machine manufacturad 
by Bertrams, Limited, 
is shown in Fig. 59, 
and is used for slitting 
and re- reeling webs of 
paper, especially where 
large webs are requi- 
site for web-calender- 
ing, web-printing, and 
suchlike. The reel of 
paper from the paper- 
machine is placed on 
a sliding-carriage ar- 
rangement, the brack- 
ets of which are planed 
and fitted to a planed 
solé, with wedge or 
dove-tail corners, and 
controlled by screws, 
hand-wheel, etc., so 
that the reel can 
quickly and easily be 
moved f orward or back- 
ward to suit any un- 
equal reeling that may 
have taken place on 
the paper or the ma- 
chine. A hot cast-iron 
is provided for mend- 
ing breaks in the web, 
and a measuring-roll 
and counter is also 
applied. The ma- 




cliine lias an important application 
of drawing-in or regulating rolls 
of cast iron, with arrangement of 
expanding pulley for regulating 
the tensión on the paper. Slit- 
ting-knives, regulating, dancing, 
or leading-rolls, of cast iron, etc., 
are applied for separating the edges 
and guiding the webs after they 
are slit. The reeling is performed 
by a 3-feet diameter drum, cross- 
shafts, and arms, to which regulat- 
ing heads are fitted, so that several 
webs can be run up at one opera- 

Web-Ripping Machine . — This 

machine, which is manufactured by 

Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, is 

§ shown in Fig. 60, and is con- 

hb structed to divide webs of paper 

^ into two or more widths. It con- 

sists of two brass bearings on 

cast-iron standards, with screAv 

adjustnients, a break- pulley and 

I friction-regulator, all mounted on 

! cast-iron slides, movable trans- 

versely by means of a screw, 

| geared-wheels, shaft and hand- 

wheel ; a wood guide-roll, about 7 

inches diameter, with wrought- 

¡ iron centres, carried by brass bear- 

¡ ings with screw adjustment ; three 

¡ skeleton drums, each 2 feet in dia- 

| meter, on wrought-iron shafts, 

carried by brass bearings, and 

driven by spur-wheels and pinions ; 

two wrought-iron leading-rolls, 

' with brass bearings and cast-iron 


stands ; a pair of strong wrought-iron ripper shaf ts with 
circular steel knives, bosses, springs, and collars; cast- 
iron stands and brass bearings, spur-wheels and driv- 
ing-pulley; two (or more) changeable wood drums 1 
f oot 6 inches in diameter, each with. wrought - iron 
shaft and catch-box, carried by brackets fitted with 
brass steps for easily changing, driven by wrought-iron 
shaf ts with pedestals and f riction-pulleys, 2 f eet in dia- 
meter, with, regulating screws and lock-nuts, all carried 
by strong cast-iron framing and standards, and driven 
by a wrought-iron driving- shaft, with fast and loóse 
driving-pulleys, strap-fork and levers for starting and 

Roeckner's Clarifier. — In this apparatus, of which an 
illustration is given in Rg. 61, Mr. Roeckner has taken 
advantage of the fact that if a column of liquid is ascend- 
ing very slowly and quietly within a yessel, it will not be 
able to carry up with it the solid partióles which it con- 
tains, which will gradually fall back and sink to the 
bottom under the action of gravity, without ever reaching 
the top of the vessel, provided this be of sufiicient height. 
The illustration shows the arrangement of the apparatus 
on a small scale ; the liquor to be clarified is run into a well 
or reservoir b ; into this dip a wrought-iron cylinder c, 
which is open at the lower end, but hermetically closed at 
the top by means of the casing d. From this casing air can 
be withdrawn through a pipe, h, by means of an air-pump i. 
As soon as this is done the liquid will begin to ascend the 
cylinder c, and if the height of this is below that to which 
the water will rise at the atmospheric pressure (say 25 f eet), 
the liquid will ascend until it filis the cylinder and the 
casing. Into the pocket at the side of the casing there 
dips a pipe g, which passes out through the opposite side 
of the casing, descends below the level of the water in the 
tank, and ends in a discharge-cock. When this cock is 
opened, the cylinder c and the pipe g form between them 
a syphon, of which, however, the descendingleg is of very 
small diameter compared with the ascending leg. In con- 


sequence, the liquid will rise in the cylinder c very slowly. 
The sediment it contains will sink back and collect in the 
bottom of the tank b, and clear water will flow out at the 
outlet. A sludge-cock at the bottom of the tank allows 

the solid matter to be drawn off at intervals and conveyed 
to any convenient place for drying, etc.* Por drawing 
clear water from a river, the clarifier would simply be 

* Sanitcmj World, March 29th, 1884. 


placed in the river, dipping 2 or 3 inclies into it below 
the lowest water-level. The clear water will then be drawn 
through the clarifier, while tlie heavier matters "will fall 
down and be carried away by the river current. It is 
stated that this has proved a great advantage to a paper- 
mill wbicb used a river, and bad, prior to its use, been 
mucb troubled tbrougb tbe dirt being puniped with tbe 
water A The clarifier to receive the waste froni paper- 
niachinery, or from washings in the engines, can be placed 
in any convenient córner, and by its action the water can 
be re-used, and the otherwise lost fibres collected, without 
its action ever being stopped. 

Marsliall's Ferfecting Engine This engine, a longi- 
tudinal section of which is shown in Fig. 62, has been 
introduced into this country by Messrs. Bentley and Jackson, 
and is described in Industries* as follows : — "The machine, 
which is the invention of Mr. F. Marshall, of Turner's 
Falls, Mass., U.S. A., is used in one of the processes of paper 
manufacture, and has foritspurpose the more effectual draw- 
ing of the pulp fibre, the clearance of knots from the pulp 
previous to its delivery on to the paper-making machine, 
and the saving of time in the treatment of the material. As 
will be seen in the illustration (Fig. 62), the machine con- 
sists essentially of a cast-iron conical casing, bored, and 
fitted with about two hundred elbowed steel knives, g, 
placed in sections. At the large end of this conical casing 
is placed a movable disc, also fitted with about two hun- 
dred and ten steel knives, r, and capable of adjustment by 
means of a screw, worm, worm-wheel, and hand-wheel, e. 
The revolving cone and disc are of cast iron, fitted with 
straight steel knives firmly keyed upon a hammered iron 
shaft, and carefully balanced to prevent vibration. The 
knives of the revolving cone and disc are brought into 
contact with the stationary knives by means of the hand- 
wheel e, and the disc-knives can be independently ad- 
j usted by means of the hand-wheel c, which actuates a 
screw 011 the conical casing by means of the worm and 
* Industries, January 25th, 1889. 


worm-wheel shown. The machine is driven by means of 

a pulley a. and the 
whole machine is 
mounted on a cast- 
iron base-plate. The 
pulp material enters 
the engine in the 
direction indicated 
by the arrow, b, at 
the small end of the 
cone, and is, by the 
rotary and centri- 
fuga! action of the 
revolving cone, pro- 
pelled to its large 
end, and during its 
passage is reduced 
, to a fine pulp by 
o the action of the 
& knives. It then 
passes through the 
knives, r, of 
stationary and 
tating discs, 
which the fibres are 
further crushed or 
split up, all knots 
or strings rubbed 
out, and the pulp 
effectually cleared 
previous to its exit 
through the passage 
D." We are inform- 
ed that the machine 
is capable of treat- 
ing from 9001bs. to 
l,2001bs. of pulp per 
hour. The power required to drive it is estimated at from 




40 i.h.p. to 50 i.h.p. wlien niaking 300 revolutions per 
minute. This, however, is dependent on the amount of 
friction caused between the surfaces of the fixed and 

revolving knives. 
in length, 

The flow space occupied is 12ft. 6in. 
and 4ft. in width. The perfecting machine, in 
its complete form, is shown in Fig. 63. 


Eecovery of Soda. — Evaporating Apparatus. — Eoeckner's Evaporator. — 
Porion's Evaporator — American System of Soda Eecovery. — ■ 
Yaryan Evaporator. 

Recovery of Soda. — Probably one of the most important 
improvements in modern paper-making, at least from an 
economical point of view, is tlie process of recovering one 
of the most costly, and at the same time most extensively 
used, ma,terials employed in the manufacture — soda. While 
not a great many years since (and in some milis is still the 
case even nowj, it was customary to allow the spent soda 
liquors resulting from the boiling of various fibres to run 
into the nearest rivers, thus not only wasting a yaluable 
product, but also polluting the streams into which they 
were allowed to flow, means are now adopted by which 
a considerable proportion of the soda is recovered and 
rendered available for further use. The means by 
which this is effected are various, but all have for their 
object the expulsión of the water and the destruction of 
the organic matters dissolved out of the fibrous substances 
in the process of boiling with caustic 'soda solutions. One 
of the main objects of the various methods of recovering 
the soda from spent liquors is to utilise, as far as prac- 
ticable, all the heat that is generated from the fuel used, 
whereby the process of evaporation may be effected in the 
most economical way possible. The principie upon which 
the most successful methods are based is that the fíame 
and heat pass over and under a series of evaporating pans, 
and through side flues, by which time the heat hasbecome 


thoroughly utilised and exhausted. When all the water 
has been expelled, the resulting dry mass is ignited and 
allowed to burn out, when the black ash that remains, 
which is carbonate of soda, is afterwards dissolved out, 
and the alkaline liquor causticised with lime in the usual 
manner. According to Dunbar, 8 cwt. of recovered ash 
and 4| cwt. of good lime will produce 900 gallons of 
causticley at 11° Tw. The liquor is then pumped into 
settling tanks, from which it is delivered to the boilers 
when required. 

Evaporating Apparatus. — An ordinary form of evapo- 
rator f or the recovery of the soda is shown in Fig. 64. It 
consists of a chamber a, of the nature of a reverberatory 

Fig. 64. 

furnace, lined with fire-brick, the bottom of which is 
slightly hollowed. Above this is a tank b containing the 
liquor, which is run down into the chamber as required 
by means of a pipe c, provided with a tap. At one end .of 
the chamber is a furnace d, the fíame of which passes 
through the chamber and over the surface of the liquor 
lying npon the floor, heating the chamber, evaporating, 
and at last incinerating, its contents, and at the same time 
warming the liquor in the tank above, and evaporating 
some of its water. The products of the combustión in the 
furnace, and of evaporation, pass by the flue into a chim- 
ney, and escape thence into the air. There is a door e in 
the side of the furnace near the level of the floor of the 
chamber, and this is opened from time to time to enable 


the workmen to stir and move about tlie contents of the 
chamber, and finally, when the process is sufficiently 
advanced, to draw out the residue. The first efíect pro- 
duced is the reduction of the liquor to the consistence of 
tar. Later on, a white crust, which is the incinerated 
material, forms on the surface, and is drawn on one side 
by the workmen, so as to allow of f resh crust being f ormed. 
When all the charge has become solid it is drawn. The 
charge is usually withdrawn before the conversión into 
carbonate is completed ; it is then raked out into barrows 
and placed in a heap, generally in a shed or chamber, open 
on one side, but sometimes in a closed brick- chamber or 
den, where the combustión continúes for several weeks. 
The result is the fusión of the material into a grey rocky 
substance, which consists chiefly of carbonate and silicate 
of soda. 

Various modifications of the esparto evaporator and cal- 
ciner have, however, been introduced since the recovery of 
soda has become more general, and are in use at various 
works, all having for their main object the economising of 
fuel and the utilising of the waste heat of the fire, which 
in the old-fashioned calciner goes up the chimney and is 
lost. The leading principie of all of them is to use the 
waste heat in concentrating the liquor preparatory to its 
being run into the part where the calcination is to be 
effected. This is done by so extending and widening out 
the flue as to cause the heated air and fíame, af ter they 
have perf ormed their function in the calcination, to pass 
over or under their layers of liquor, lying upon shelves or 
floors in such a way that the liquor shall become more and 
more concentrated as it approaches the calciner by suc- 
cessive steps or gradations * — Dr. Bailará. 

Roeckner's Evaporator. — This apparatus, an illustration 
of which is shown in Fig. 65, is thus described by Dr. 
Ballard, medical officer of the Local Government Board, 
who was specially appointed by the board to investígate 
the emuvium nuisances which arise in connection with 

* " Seventh. Animal Eeport of Local Government Board," 1877-8. 



certain manufacturing industries. " In tliis apparatus 
there is above the calcining floor a series of slielves or 
shallow pans, alternating in such a manner that the liquor 
flowing f rom the tank above into the uppermost of them, 
flows, after a partia\ evaporation, over the edge of the 
shelf into the shelf or shallow pan next below, and in this 
way from shelf to shelf, still becoming more and more 
concenfcrated until it reaches the final floor, over which the 
flame from the actual fire plays, and where the first part 

Fig. 65. 

of the calcination is effected. The heated air, in passing 
to the chimney, passes over each of these shelves in suc- 
cession, heating them and concentrating the liquor upon 
them. There is between the lower shelves an arrange- 
ment for causing the liquor to pass from the upper to the 
lower by means of a pipe, instead of its running over the 
edge. At the top of aÚ is a covered tank, where the tem- 
perature of the liquor is raised before it is run into the 
evaporator. In promote the heating of the liquor 
in this tank, the lower part of the tank is made to com- 
municate by side pipes with tubes passing across the 
evaporator near the fire, as, for instance, at the bridge and 
at the further end of the calcining floor. In this way a 
circulation of liquor is set up which serves to heat the 


liquor in the tank more effectually. A pipe from the top 
of the tank leads to the chimey-shaft, conducting any 
vapours into it. As the incinerated crust forms it is raked 
on one side, and when sufficient of it has accumulated it 
is drawn to an opening (provided with a damper) at the 
side or end of the floor, and discharged down this open- 
ing into a brick chaniber below, which is inclosed by iron 
doors, and from which a . flue conducts the vapours that 
arise during the final fusión through the fire in such a way 
as to consume them." By recent improvements Mr. 
Roeckner has constructed an apparatus for condensing and 
rendering inoffensive the vapours eliminated from the 
liquor during its evaporation on the successive shelves of 
his evaporator. 

Porion's Evaporator. — This evaporator and incinerating 
furnace much resembles in principie an ordinary rever - 
beratory furnace, except that it is provided with paddle 
agitators, which project the liquid upwards, causing it to 
descend in a spray, thus increasing the surface of the 
liquid coming in contact with the hot air and current óf 
smoke traversing the furnace. By this method the expense 
of fuel is greatly reduced. The residue is in a state of 
ignition when it is withdrawn from the furnace, and is 
piled in heaps so that it may burn slowly. "When the 
combustión is complete, the resulting calcined mass is 
treated with water, and the carbonate of soda f ormed is 
afterwards causticised in the usual way. About two-thirds 
of the soda is thus recovered. 

The Yaryan Evaporator. — Mr. Homer T. Yaryan, of 
Toledo, Ohio, U.S.A., has introduced some important 
improvements in evaporating apparatus, which have been 
fully recognised in America, and appear to have been 
attended with success. The principie involved is that of 
múltiple effects, in which the evaporation takes place 
while the liquid is flowing through heated coils of pipe or 
conduits, and in which the vapour is separated from the 
liquid in a chamber, at the discharge end of the coils, and 
is conducted to the heating cylinders urrounding the 


evaporating coils of the next effect, from tlie first to the 
last effect. The objects of tlie invention are : (1) to provide 
extended yaporising coils or conduits and increased heat- 
ing surface for each liquid feed supply in the heating 
cylinders, and provide improved means for feeding the 
liquid, whereby each. set or coil of vaporising tubes will 
receive a positive and uniform supply of liquid without 
danger of the feed ducts being clogged by extraneous 
matter f (2) to positively control the amount of liquid fed 
by the pump to the evaporating coils, and make it more 
uniform than heretofore, regardless of the speed of the 
pump ; (3) to provide improved separating chambers at 
the discharge ends of the vaporising coils so as to better 
free liquid and solid partióles from the vapours ; (4) to 
provide for the successful treatment of the most frothy 
liquids by causing the vapours carrying solid and liquid 
partióles to pass through catch-all chambers, where they 
are arrested and precipitated and then returned to the 
evaporating coils ; (5) to secure a more positive flow and 
circulation of liquid from the evaporating cylinder of one 
effect to another, under the influence of a better vacuum 
than heretofore in multiple-effect vacuum evaporating 
apparatus ; (6) to provide for transferring a better con- 
centrated liquid into the separating chamber containing 
cooler concentrated liquid in direct connection with the 
condenser and vacuum pump, so as to equalise the tem- 
perature of the two liquids, and then draw off both by one 
tail pump. 

The present invention comprises a series of important 
improvements on an apparatus described by Mr. Yaryan 
in a former English patent, No. 14,162 (1886), and covers 
a number of important modifications in construction, 
whereby improved results are secured. It is only neces- 
sary, therefore, to give the details of the new patent, No. 
213 (1888), since it embodies the latest improvements 
which practical working of the apparatus has suggested. 
In reference to the accompanying illustrations the follow- 
ing details are given : Fig. 66 represents a side elevation of 


the apparatus ; Fig. 67, tlie front elevation ; Fig. 68, a top 

f*Ct/a*t *>v*f¿> 

Fig. 66. 

plan view ; Fig. 69, a vertical section of a cylinder showing 


f{£0 fOMff 

Fig. 67. 

the evaporating coiis and separating chamber ; Fig. 70 is a 
horizontal section ; and Fig. 71, a vertical section of the 


Fig. 70. 

Fig. 71. 

separating chaniber shown in Fig. 69, botli on reduced 

Fig. 73. Fig. 74. 

scale ; Fig. 72 is a broten section of the cjdinders for 



showing the connections of the liquid pipe from the first 
to the tírird effect evaporator ; Fig. 73 is a jear end view oí 
a cylinder witli manifold, the feed pump and a sectional 
view of the feed box and supply devices; Fig. 74 representa 
a sectional view, on enlarged scale, of the manifold and 
a feed duct ; Fig. 75 is an inside view of a return bend- 
head ; Fig. 76 an inside view of a section of the head ; 
Fig. 7f , a vertical cross section thereof on enlarged scale, 
and showing the partitions forming cells for connecting 
the ends of the evaporating tubes : Fig. 78 is a vertical 

Fig. 75. 

Fig. 76. 

Fig. 77. 

longitudinal section of a catch-all chamber; Fig. 79, a 
cross section thereof ; Fig. 80 is a vertical longitudinal 
section of new form of separating chamber ; and Fig. 81 
represents a side view and Fig. 82 an end view of the 
cylinders for showing the pipe connection between the 
separating chambers of the third and fourth effect 

The evaporating cylinders are mounted upon a frame- 
work y, supported upon columns xx, or other suitable 
supports. The apparatus is shown arranged as quadruple. 


effect, with four connected cylinders, but múltiple effect 
apparatus may be constructed with an increased number 
of cylinders up to ten or twelve. The beating cylinders 
b 1 b 2 b 3 b 4 , containing tbe evaporating tubes or coils, are 
preferably arranged in tbe same horizontal plañe, and are 
provided at tbe discharge ends of the evaporating coils 


-& s 

Fig. 80. 

with separating chambers, a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 , of enlarged diame- 
ter, and at tbe supply ends of tbe coils with the coils with 
return bend ends, c 1 c 2 c 3 c 4 . From each separating cham- 
ber, a 1 , a 2 , valve pipe d 1 d 2 d 3 leads into tbe shell of the 
next heating cylinder, as b 2 , b 3 , b 4 , and vapour pipe d 4 
leads from the last separator a 4 to the condenser h, and 
tbe vacunm pump h 1 . A cylindrical catch-all chamber 



e 1 , e 2 , e 3 , e 4 , is connected in each vapour pipe between each 
separator and each succcssive heating cylinder, as shown 
in Figs. 66, 67, and 68, and in detail in Fig. 75. Gauge 
glass and liquid receiving chambers, g 1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 , connect 
with the bottom of each separating chamber for receiving 
the liquid as it is separated from the vapour, and a gauge 

Fiff. 81. 

Fig. 82. 

glass g is applied to each of such chambers. Liquid dis- 
charge and transfer pipes t, t l , having valves h, h l , as best 
shown in Figs. 66, 68, and 72, lead respectively from cham- 
bers g 1 , g 2 , of the first and second effect to the manifold 
feed pipes leading into the cylinders b 3 , b 4 , of the third 
and f ourth effect for the purpose hereaf ter described. The 


main steam supply pipe f, having a saf ety valve / and stop 
valve/ 1 , Figs. 66, 67, and 68, connects with the heating 
cylinder b 1 of the first effect. The evaporating tubes 1, 
2, 3, 4, 5, are expanded or otherwise secured in the tube 
sheets d and e" at opposite ends of the cylinders, and are 
propeiiy connected at the ends in sets of five to form 
coils. The outer rear return-bend head c 1 c 2 , etc., are 
provided on their insides with numerous short intersecting 
partition plates c, forming single and double cells, pro- 
perly arranged for connecting the evaporating tubes in 
sets of five, as shown in Figs. 75, 76, 77. 

The heads are pierced with holes c' for connecting the 
liquid supply pipes m of the manifolds l. The inner 
return-bend head t in the separating chambers are f ormed 
like heads c 1 c 2 , etc., with intersecting partition plates x, 
and are provided with discharge openings t" for every fif th 
tube, as shown in Fig. 69. Tube sheet d is made of con- 
siderably larger diameter than cylinders b 1 b 2 , etc., and 
acts as a vibrating diaphragm, to accommodate the expan- 
sión and contraction of the tubes. The separating cham- 
bers may be constructed with dash plates b b, two or more 
in number, having openings g g' alternately upon opposite 
sides for the passage of vapour, and opening a' at the 
bottom for the passage of liquid, as shown in Fig. 80. 
Here a tube sheet z is provided near the openings of the 
evaporating tubes, and in such sheet are set numerous 
small horizontal tubes n, which discharge against a 
vertical arresting píate b' set near their open ends. Water 
and solid matter are impelled against the píate and 
thereby arrested and caused to flow down to the bottom of 
the chamber. The liquid feed apparatus consists of a 
supply tank k, stand-pipe j, feed box k 1 , double 
pump i, manifold l, and connecting pipes and valves. 
The liquid to be evaporated flows f rom tank k, through 
pipe k, to stand-pipe j and box k 1 , the flow being constant 
and uniform, and. of the desired quantity, by means of a 
valve U having a lever handle / which is connected by a 
cord or chain passing over a pulley j with float q in stand- 


pipe j. The valve opening in pipe Je being properly 
adj usted by nieans of the float, etc., the liquid is admitted 
to the stand- pipe j while the column of liquid is autonia- 
tically maintained at any desired height and pressure 
regar dless of the quantity in the supply tank, by means of 
the float q, which, as it rises, tends to cióse valve k f , and 
as it falle, to open the valve. From the bottom of the 
stand-pipe j, nozzle/' discharges a constant and uniform 
stream of liquid into feed box K 1 . The suction pipe 1" of 
pump 1 extends into box k 1 , where it terminates in a 
turned-down nozzle provided with valve * having a lever 
handle and float z. As a given amount of liquid is con- 
stantly running into the box, should the pump run too 
fast the float lowers, partially closing the valve and 
lessening the amount of liquid drawn at each stroke of 
the pump, and preventing air from being drawn in, since 
the end of the suction pipe is always sealed by the liquid. 
The liquid is forced by pump 1 into the manifolds l, from 
which it flows through the contracted duets l into the 
enlarged feed pipes m, as shown in Figs. 73 and 74. Ducts 
l are of about one-half inch diarneter, and the upper and 
lower sections thereof are connected by a unión coupling, 
one portion of which V has a reducer with opening one- 
quarter inch diarneter, more or less, according to the 
amount of liquid it is desired to feed. 

The catch-all chambers e 1 e 2 , etc., Figs. 66, 78, and 79, 
are provided each at its inlet end e, with tube sheet o 
extending across its diarneter a short distance in front of 
the opening of vapour pipe d 1 , and in such sheet are fixed 
numerous longitudinal tubes p extending to near the 
opposite head e, so that vapours carrying watery or solid 
partióles are impelled against the head and arrested. 
Liquid and solid matter, arrested in the catch-all chambers, 
flow through pipes v v' v" down into the fluid transí er pipe 
1 1' (Figs. 67, 68, and 72), and thence into the evaporating 
coils and through pipe v" f directly to the tail pump w, 
Fig. 67. By use of the catch-all chambers the most f rothy 
liquids can be readily and economically managed. A 


liquid transfer pipe s, having a val ve h", leads directly 
from receiving charaber g 3 of the third effect to the 
separating cliamber a 4 of the f ourth effect, the latent heat 
being carried off in tbe vapours drawn by the vacuum 
pump h 1 into the chamber h, and the finished liquid of 
both effects is drawn off through pipe w by one and the 
same tail pipe pump w. The water of condensation accu- 
mulating in the heating cylinders b 1 b 2 , etc., is transferred 
from one to the other through connecting pipes u u u" 
having valves y, shown in Figs. 66, 67, and 68 ; and finally 
from cylinder b 4 through pipe u'" directly into condenser 
h. The specification of the patent, which those interested 
will do well to consult, next describes the operation of the 

American System of Soda Recovery. — Mr. Congdon 
gives an exhaustive description* of the method of recover- 
ing soda in the United States, from whose interesting 
paper we extract the following : — The spent liquors are 
delivered to the Yaryan evaporator from the pans at a 
density of 6 o to 7 o B. at 130° F. Here they are 
concentrated to 34° to 42° at 140° F. At this density 
they are fed into furnaces of a reverberatory type, where 
they are burnt to a cherry-red heat, and the ash then 
raked out. This ash, which averages 50 per cent, of soda, 
is weighed in iron barrows on suitable scales, and wheeled 
into the leaching-room for lixiviation. The system of 
leaching, as it is termed in the States, is conducted as f ol- 
lows : — Iron tanks are used, with suitable piping, that 
allows pumping from one tank to another, and also to 
pump from any one of them up to the causticising tanks 
in the alkali-room. There is also a water- line by which 
water may be pumped into any of the tanks, and there is 
a spout used in washing away the black ash sludge. The 
leaching-tanks have false bottoms of 2in. by 2in. stuff, 
placed crosswise, o ver which is a layer of gravel, on which 
lies a layer of straw, by which the liquor is filtered. The 

* School of Mines Quarterly Journal of Applied Science, January, 1889, 
New York. 


gravel is removed every few days, and the straw with 
every charge. When one of the tanks is filled with black 
ash, it is "wet down" with the stored liquor (the strongest 
of the stored weak liquors), and also with the strongest 
weak liquors from the tanks, and with weak liquors 
obtained from these tanks by pumping water upon them 
and keeping them full. This is all pumped up to the 
causticising-tank until the strength is reduced to 2° or 
1|°B. The remaining liquor is then drained into a tank 
known as the " clear-liquor " tank, owing to there being 
no bíack ash in it. The liquor from the next weakest pan 
is then pumped upon the pan containing the biack ash, 
and the next weakest liquor pumped upon this. The 
weaker pans are then in succession pumped upon the 
stronger, and the water pumped upon these, and thus a 
very perfect washing is obtained. The sludge left behind 
is nothing but charcoal, with a slight trace of carbonate 
of soda. Mr. Congdon illustrates the above system thus. 
The tanks stand as follows : — 

No. 1. Clear liquor, I o to 2 o B. (strongest). 

No. 2. Black ash sludge (weaker than No. 3). 

No. 3. Black ash, after sending up to causticising-tank 
(strongest sludge). 

No. 4. Fresh black ash. 

No. 5. Weaker than No. 2 (sludge only). 

No. 6. Weaker than No. 5 (sludge and weakest liquor). 

The method of procedure is as follows : — 

Liquor from No. 3 drained into No. 1 (now full). 

No. 6 pumped on to No. 2 (No. 6 sludge thrown away). 

Liquor from No. 2 drained upon No. 3. 

Water put on No. 5. 

No. 5 pumped upon No. 2 (No. 5 sludge thrown away). 

The black ash is treated thus : — 

No. 4, full of black ash, is wet down with Nos. 1, 2, 
and 3, and pumped up to the causticising-tank. 

Water is pumped out to Nos. 2 and 3, and then drained 
upon No. 4, the liquor still being pumped up from No. 4 
while the water is being pumped upon Nos. 2 and 3, 


which are kept full. This is continued until the liquor 
tests only 2 o to I o B. 

No. 4 is now drained upon No. 1. 

No. 3 pumped upon No. 4, and this drained into No. 1 
(now full) . 

No. 3 pumped upon No. 5. 

Water pumped upon No. 2 (No. 2 the next to be thrown 

No. o is by this time full of fresh black ash, and the 
same procesa is earried out with No. 4. 



Examination of Commercial Sodas. — Mohr's Alkalimeter. — Preparation of 
the Test Acid. — Sampling Alkalies. — The Assay. — Estimation of 
Chlorine in Bleaching Powder. — Fresenms' Method. — Gay-Lussac's 
Method.— The Test Liquor. — Testíng the Sample. — Estimation of 
Alumina in Alum Cake, etc. 

In a manufacture such as paper-making, which involves 
the consumption of enormous quantities of materials of 
variable quality, as soda ash, caustic soda, and bleaching 
powder, for example, it will be readily seen that some 
means should be at the command of the consumer who 
does not avail himself of the services of a practical chemist 
at his works, by which he can ascertain the actual valué of 
the various substances he uses. An art which, up to a 
certain point in its progress, is mainly a chemical opera- 
tion, it would undoubtedly be more saf ely and economically 
conducted when supervised by persons well acquainted 
with chemical principies and reactions, and less dependent 
upon individual judgment, than is, perhaps, too frequently 
the case. TJnder such supervisión more perfect uniformity 
of results — a consideration of the greatest importance in 
a manufacture of this kind — would be ensured. 

Examination of Commercial Sodas. — The methods of 
determining the percentage of real alkali in the commer- 
cial products which ha ve received the ñame of Alhal- 
imetry are fortunately of a simple character, and such as 
a person of ordinary intelligence and skill can readily 


manipúlate and render tborougbly reliable by exerting the 
necessary care. He must, bowever, be provided witii a 
few indispensable appliances, wbicb will be described, and 
witb tbese be sbould make several triáis upon various 
samples until be finds tbat bis results are uniform and bis 
manipulation easy and reliable. He will require a cbemical 
balance,* capable of weighing to tbe tentb of a grain ; a 
few glass "beakers" (Fig. 83) of various sizes, capable of 
bolding from four to eigbt or ten ounces of fluid ; several 
glass stirrers ; a bottle of litaras solution, made by dissolving 


Fig. 83. 

Fie. 84. 

Fie. 85. 

litmus in bot water ; books of litmus and turmeric papers ; 
and several glass flasks (Fig. 84) of various sizes, capable 
of bolding from four to eigbt ounces. Besides tbese 
accessories, certain measuring instruments, termed alkali- 
meters or burettes, are employed, of wbicb eitber of tbe 
two following may be employed. Tbese instruments are 
of glass, and bold up to or zero exactly 1,000 grains. 
Tbe scale is graduated in a bundred divisions, wbicb are 
again subdivided into tentbs. Bink's burette is sbown in 
Fig. 85, and Mobr's burette in Fig. 86. Tbe latter, being 
provided witb a stand, enables tbe operator to add tbe test 

* These balances may be obtained from Mr. Oertling, Coppice Eow, 
London, or of any philosophical intsrument maker. 



liquor — witli wbicb tlie burette is cbarged — drop by drop, 
wben tbe alkaline solution to be tested is near tbe point of 
saturation, witbout engaging tlie bands. 

Molir's Alkalimeter. — This useful instrument (Fig. 86) 
and tbe metbod of using it is tbus described by Mobr : — 
" I bave succeeded in substituting for expensive glass 
stop-cocks an arrangement 
wbicb may be constructed 
by any person witb ease, 
wbicb remains ábsolutely 
air and water-tigbt for an 
indefinite period, wbicb 
may be opened and regu- 
lated at will by tbe pressure 
of tbe fingers, and wbicb 
costs almost notbing. It 
consists of a small piece 
of vulcanized indiarubber 
tube, wbicb is closed by a 
clamp of brass wire (Fig. 
87). Tbe ends of tbis 
clamp, wbicb I cali a pres- 
sure-cock, are bent laterally 
at rigbt angles in opposite 
directions and furnisbed 
witb knobs, so tbat wben 
botb ends are pressed tbe 
clamp is opened, and a 
single drop or a continuous 

Fig. 86. 

current of liquid may be allowed to escape at pleasure. 
Tbe measuring-tube is a straigbt glass cylinder, as uni- 
form as possible, graduated to 0*2 or O'l cubic centi- 
metres, and somewbat contracted at its lower end, so as 
to fit into tbe indiarubber tube. A small piece of glass 
tube inserted below tbe pressure-cock forms tbe spout. 
Tbe pressure-cock bas tbe advantage of not leaking, for 
it closes itself wben tbe pressure of tbe fingers is re- 
moved. Tbe measure, furnisbed witb tbe pressure-cock, 


is fastened upon an appropriate stand, wbich can be 
placed at any required height. Wben used, it is filled 
above the zero point with test liquor, tbe cock opened 
for an instant, so as to let tbe air escape from tbe 
spout, and tbe level of tbe solution is tben adjusted. 
Tbis is done by bringing tbe eye level witb tbe zero point, 
and applying a gentle pressure to tbe cock until tbe liquid 
bas sunk so low tbat tbe inferior curve of tbe liquid 
toucbes tbe graduation like tbe circle of a tangent ; tbe 
cock is tben closed, and at tbe same moment tbe liquid 
remains at zero, and continúes to do so for weeks if evapo- 
ration is prevented. Tbe test-measure being normally 
filled, tbe experiment may be commenced; tbis is done 
sitting, while tbe filling of tbe measure is done standing. 

" The weighed sample of alkali is first placed in a 
beaker-glass, and tbe test-liquor is allowed to flow into it 
by gently pressing tbe cock. Botb bands are set at liberty, 
for wben tbe pressure-cock is released it closes of itself . 
Tbe volumetric * operation may be interrupted at pleasure, 
in order to beat tbe liquid, sbake it, or do whatever else 
may be required. Tbe quantity of liquid used may be 
read off at any moment, and in repeating an experiment, 
tbe limit of tbe quantity used before may be approacbed 
so near tbat tbe furtber addition of liquid may be made 
drop by drop." Tbe test-acid to be used volumetrically — 
tbat is, witb tbe alkalimeter, bas a specific gravity of 
1-032 at 60° F., and 1,000 grains by measure contain 
exactly 40 grains of real or anbydrous (tbat is, without 
water) sulpburic acid. 

Tbe cbemical principies involved in tbe process of alkali- 
testing may be tbus briefly stated: — According to tbe 
laws of cbemical combination defined by tbe atomic tbeory 
of Dalton, all substances combine in definite proportions or 
" equivalents " ; tbus, 1 part by weigbt of hydrogen com- 
bines witb 8 parts by weigbt of oxygen to form water. 

* There are two principal methods of analysing or assaying alkalies by 
means of the test-acid, namely, volumetric, or by volume, and graviinetrie, 
or by weigbt, in whicb a specific gravity bottle, capable of bolding exactly 
1,000 grains of distilled water, is used. 


The equivalent number of hydrogen, therefore, is 1, and 
of oxygen 8, and that of water 9. Again, 3 equivalents 
of oxygen combine with 1 equivalent of sulphur (16) to 
form sulphuric acid ; thus, sulphur 16, oxygen 24, equals 
anhydrous sulphuric acid 40 ; therefore 40 is the equivalent 
or combining number of this acid, and it cannot be made 
to unite with alkalies or other bases in any other propor- 
tion. ¥or example, 40 grains by weight of puré sul- 
phuric acid will neutralise exactly 53 grains of dried car- 
bonate of soda, 31 grains of puré anhydrous soda, or 40 
grains of hydrate of soda (caustic soda). This being so, it 
is only necessary to have exactly 40 grains of real sul- 
phuric acid in 1,000 grains of water to form a test-acid, 
which, when employed to neutralise an alkaline solu- 
tion, will show, by the proportion of dilute acid used to 
satúrate the alkali, the absolute percentage present in the 

Freparation of the Test- Acid or Standard Solution. 
— As there is some trouble involved in the preparation of 
the test-liquor, it is advisable to prepare a sufficient quan- 
tity at a time to last for many operations. It may be 
readily made by mixing 1 part of concentrated sulphuric 
acid with 11 or 12 parts of distitted water, the mixture being 
made in what is termed a " Winchester " bottle, which 
holds rather more than half a gallón, and is provided with 
a glass stopper. The acid solution must be adjusted or 
brought to the proper strength after it has cooled down 
to 60° F. ; and it should be faintly tinged with litmus, 
which will give it a pinkish hue. The acid, to be of the 
proper strength, should exactly neutralise 53 grains of 
puré carbonate of soda, previously calcined at a red heat, 
or 31 grains of puré anhydrous soda. To prepare the 
anhydrous carbonate of soda, a f ew crystals of carbonate 
of soda are placed in a Berlin porcelain crucible, and this 
must be heated over a spirit-lamp or Bunsen burner. 
When all the water of crystallisation has become expelled, 
the calcination is continued until the mass is at a bright 
red heat, when the vessel may be allowed to cool. 53 


grains of the calcined carbonate are now to be carefully 
weighed, and next dissolved in a glass beaker, in about 
2 ounces of distilled water. The alkalimeter is now to be 
charged with the test-acid to tbe level of zero, and (if 
Mohr's burette be used) tbe beaker containing tbe alkaline 
solution is to be placed upon tbe stand immediately beneatb 
tbe exit-tube. Now press tbe knobs of tbe pressure-cock, 
and allow a portion of tbe liquor to flow into tbe beaker. 
Wben tbe effervescence wbicb immediately sets up sub- 
sides, make furtber additions of tbe test -liquor from time 
to time, until tbe effervescence becomes sluggish, at wbicb 
period tbe acid must be added witb greater caution. Wben 
tbe solution approacbes saturation it acquires a purplisb 
tint (due to tbe litmus witb wbicb tbe acid is tinged), 
wbicb it retains until tbe point of saturation is reached, 
wben it suddenly cbanges to a pink colour. After eacb 
addition of tbe acid tbe solution sbould be stirred witb a 
tbin and clean glass rod ; and before tbe final cbange from 
purple to pink, tbe end of tbe glass rod sbould be applied 
to a strip of blue litmus paper, wben, if tbe moistened 
spot touched assumes a red colour, tbe saturation is com- 
plete ; if, on tbe contrary, tbe paper is uncbanged, or bas 
a violet or reddisb bue, add tbe test-liquor, one or two 
drops at a time, witb continued stirring, until a drop of 
tbe solution applied witb a glass rod reddens litmus paper, 
wben tbe saturation is finisbed. If any test-liquor remain 
in tbe burette, tbis indicates tbat tbere is excess of acid in 
tbe test-liquor ; consequently more distilled water must be 
added to tbe bulk, tbe burette emptied and refilled witb 
tbe reduced liquor, and anotber 53 grains of anbydrous 
carbonate of soda treated as before, until 1,000 grains of 
tbe acid liquor exactly neutralise tbe solution. Sbould tbe 
wbole contents of tbe burette in tbe first trial be used 
before saturation is complete, a little more sulphuric acid 
must be put into tbe Winchester or test-acid bottle, and 
a 53-grain solution of carbonate of soda treated as before. 
A very little practice will enable the operator to adjust 
bis test-liquor with perf ect accuracy ; and, to prevent 


mistakes, the bottle should be labelled " Test-acid," and 
always be kept closed by its stopper. 

Sampling Alkalies. — Soda-asb of commerce is usually 
packed in wooden casks, and in order to obtain a fair 
average sample f rom a large number of tbese casks, which 
may represent one consignment, it is important to take 
small samples, as near the centre of each cask as possible, 
from as many of the casks as time will permit. Each 
sample, as drawn from the cask, should be at once placed 
in a rather wide-mouthed bottle furnished with a well- 
fitting cork. Each sample should be numbered and marked 
with the brand which distinguishes the cask from which 
it was taken. The duty of sampling should be placed in 
the hands of a person of known integrity and intelligence. 

When about to test a sample of soda-ash, the contents 
of the bottle should first be emptied upon a sheet of dry 
paper, and the larger lumps then crushed to reduce the 
whole to a coarse powder, and this must be done as quickly 
as possible to prevent absorption of moisture from the 
atmosphere. 100 grains of the alkali must now be accu- 
rately weighed and put into a glass flask (Fig. 84), and 
the remainder of the alkali returned to the bottle and the 
vessel securely corked. About half an ounce of distilled 
water is then to be put into the flask and gentle heat 
applied, with an occasional shaking, until the alkali is all 
dissolved. The flask is then to be set aside for a few 
minutes, until any insoluble matter present has subsided, 
when the olear liquor is to be carefully poured into a 
beaker glass ; the sediment must be washed several times 
with small quantities of distilled water, and the washings 
added to the solution in the beaker. This washing is of 
great importance and must be performed several times, or 
until the last washing liquor produces no effect upon yellow 
turmeric paper, which even slight traces of alkali will turn 
a brown colour. So long as this brown tint is given to the 
turmeric paper the presence of alkali is assured, and the 
washing must be continued. It is important, after each 
washing, to pour oñ the last drop of the liquor above the 
sediment, by which the operation is more effectual, and is 


effected witli less water than when this precaution is not 
observed. In order to ensure perf ect accuracy in the result, 
every partióle of the washings must be added to the con- 
tents of the beaker-glass in which tbe assay is to be made. 
The Assay. — Tbe alkalimeter is first to be filled with 
tbe test-acid exactly to tbe line or zero of tbe scale as 
described, and tbe beaker confcaining tbe solution to be 
tested tben placed immediately beneatb tbe dropping tube 
of tbe instrument ; a tbin glass rod sbould be placed in tbe 
beaker as a stirrer. Tbe acid liquor is tben allowed to 
flow gradually into tbe alkaline solution (which should be 
repeatedly stirred with tbe glass rod), by pressing tbe 
knobs of the pressure-cock, until the solution assumes a 
purple tint, which it will retain until the exact point of 
saturation has been arrived at, when, as bef ore stated, it 
will suddenly change to a pink colour. Before the latter 
stage is reached the beaker sbould be placed over a spirit 
lamp or Bunsen burner, and tbe liquid heated to expel 
the carbonic acid which is evolved, and partly absorbed 
by tbe solution during the process of saturation. When 
the neutralisation is complete, tbe alkalimeter is allowed 
to repose for a few moments, so that the acid liquor may 
drain f rom the interior of the glass tube into the bulk of 
the fluid, and the quantity of test-acid used is then deter- 
mined by reading ofí the number of divisions of the alka- 
limeter that have been exbausted, every one of which 
represents y^th part, or 1 per cent, of alkali, wbenever 
the equivalent weight is taken for assay. Every y^-th part 
of an alkalimeter división represents yV^ n °^ 1 P er cen t-, 
and the result is thus obtained without the necessity of 
any calculation. The following table shows the equivalent 
or combining proportions of soda with 40 grains of real 
(that is, anhydrous) sulphuric acid : — 

„ , , . ., o 31 grains soda (anhydrous). 

40 grains of sulphuric acid .' \ í 40 grains hydrate of soda (puré 

1,000 grains of dilute sulphuric J c | ustic so ¿ a) . 

acid (sp. gr 1-033) . . . I | 5g ^ carbonate f soda (an- 

1,000 grains of dilute sulphuric acid > £ hydrous) 

(water-grain measure) sp. gr. \ ^ 143 g rains ; ' crys taUi Z ed carbonate 

1 ' 0d2 ) < of soda. 


Mr. Arnot recommends the following method for alkali 
testing : " The saniple, which should be a fair average of 
the drum or cask from which it is drawn, should, in the 
case of caustic soda, be quickly crushed into small frag- 
ments, and returned to the stoppered bottle in which it 
was collected for testing. It need not be finely ground, 
and, indeed, should not be, as it very readily attracts 
moisture from the air. The contents of the drum are 
usually pretty uniform, and the crushing recommended 
will give the operator a sample quite fit to work upon. 
Samples of soda-ash and soda crystals will, of course, be 
fairly representative of the casks from which they are 
drawn. One hundred grains of the prepared sample must 
be weighed out upon a watch-glass or slip of glazed 
paper, and transferred to a porcelain basin, with at least 
half a pint of boiling water. The watch-glass is preferable 
for caustic soda, and the weighing in the case of that 
agent must be done expeditiously. While the sample is 
dissolving the burette will be charged with the standard 
acid. To the soda solution a few drops of solution of 
litmus, sufíicient to colour it distinctly, will be added. The 
acid will then be run into the blue soda liquor; at 
first, within reasonable limits, this may done rapidly, but 
towards the cióse of the operation the acid must be added 
cautiously, and the solution kept well stirred. In the case 
of caustic, when the blue has distinctly changed to red, 
the operation may be considered completed, and the 
measures may be read off the burette ; and this is, wáthout 
calculation, the result required. When the soda in the 
sample is a carbonate, the blue colour of the litmus will be 
changed to pink before all the soda is neutralised, owing 
to a portion of the liberated carbonic acid remaining in 
the solution ; this must be eliminated by placing the basin 
over a Bunsen burner and boiling the solution. The blue 
colour will thus be restored, and more acid must be added, 
repeating the boiling from time to time, until the red 
colour becomes permanent. It is sometimes necessary to 
filter the soda solution before testing ; this applies specially 


to recovered soda, and, although in a less degree, to soda- 
ash." When the soda solution is filtered. it will be neces- 
sary to thoroughly wash out the liquor absorbed by the 
filtering paper, the washings being added to the bulk of 
the liquor as before. The best plan is to allow the soda 
solution to stand for some time until all the sediment has 
deposited, and then to pour off as much of the liquor 
as possible, and then to wash the sediment into a yery 
small filter, in which it will receive further washing, 
until no trace of alkali can be detected in the last wash 

Estimation of Chlorine in Bleaching Powder. — It is 
desirable that the manager or f oreman of a paper-mill should 
ha ve at his command some ready means by which he may test 
the percentage of chlorine in samples of bleaching powder, 
or chloride of lime, delivered at the mili, not alone to enable 
him to determine the proportions to be used in making up his 
bleaching liquors, but also to ensure his employers against 
possible loss in case of inferior qualities being delivered at 
the mili. Bleaching powders being purchased according 
to percentage, it is absolutely necessary that the purchaser 
should have this determined to his own satisfaction before 
either using or paying for the material. Good chloride of 
lime should contain 35 per cent, of available chlorine, but 
the powder should not be accepted which contains less 
than 32 per cent. There are several methods of esti- 
mating the percentage of chlorine in bleaching powder, 
which is composed of hypochlorite of lime, chloride of 
calcium, and hydrate of lime, the latter substances being of 
no service in the bleaching process. 

According to Fresenius, in freshly prepared and per- 
fectly normal chloride of lime, the quantities of hypochlo- 
rite of lime and chloride of calcium present stand to each 
other in the proportion of their equivalents. When such 
chloride of lime is brought into contact with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, the whole of the chlorine it contains is liber- 
ated in the elementary form. On keeping chloride of 
lime, however, the proportion between hypochlorite of 


lime and chloride of calcium gradually changes : the f or- 
mer decreases, the latter increases. Henee from this cause 
alone, to say nothing of original difference, the commercial 
article is not of uniform quality, and on treatment with 
acid gives sometimes more, and sometimes less, chlorine. 
As the valué of bleaching powder depends entirely upon 
the amount of chlorine set free on treatment with acids, 
chemists have devised very simple methods of determining 
the available amount of chlorine in any given sample, 
these methods having received the ñame of chlorimetry. 
The method of Fresenius is generally considered both 
practicable and reliable. 

Fresenius' Method of preparing the solution of bleach- 
ing powder to be tested is as follows : — Carefully weigh 
out 10 grains of the sample, and finely tritúrate it in a 
mortar with a little cold water, gradually adding more 
water ; next allow the liquor to settle, then pour the liquid 
into a litre flask, and tritúrate the residue again with a 
little water, and rinse the contents of the mortar carefully 
into the flask, which should then be filled with water up 
to the graduated mark. Now shake the milky fluid and 
proceed to examine it while in the turbid state ; and each 
time, bef ore measuring off a f resh portion, the vessel must 
be again shaken to prevent the material from deposit- 
ing. The results obtained with the solution in its tur- 
bid condition are considered more acc arate and reliable 
than when the clear liquid alone is treated, even though 
the deposit be frequently washed. This may be proved, 
Fresenius says, by making two sepárate experiments, one 
with the decanted clear liquor, and another with the resi- 
duary turbid mixture. In an experiment made in his own 
laboratory the decanted clear fluid gives 22*6 of chlorine, 
the residuary mixture 25*0, and the uniformly mixed tur- 
bid solution 24 - 5. One cubic centimetre of the solution 
of chloride of lime soprepared corresponds to 0*01 gramme 
of chloride of lime. 

Gay-Liissac's Method. — This method, which is known 
as the arsenious acid process, has been much adopted for 


the determination of chlorine in bleaching powders, and is 
conducted as f ollows : — 

The Test-liquor. — This is prepared by dissolving 100 
grains of puré arsenious acid in about 4 ounces of puré 
hydrochloric acid, and the solution is to be diluted with 
water until, on being poured into a graduated 10,000 
grains measure-glass, it occupies the volume of 700 grains 
measure marked on the scale. Each 1,000 grains measure 
of this liquid now contains 14*29 grains of arsenious acid, 
corresponding to 10 grains of chlorine, or ^ grain of 
chlorine for every división or degree of the scale of the 
chlorimeter, for which purpose a Mohr's burette of the 
above capacity rnay be used, or a graduated tube of the 
form shown in Fig. 85 may be employed. 

Testing the Sample. — 100 grains of the chloride of lime 
to be tested are next dissolved in water, and poured into a 
tube graduated up to 2,000 grains measure. The whole 
must be well shaken in order to obtain a unif ormly turbid 
solution, and half of it (1,000 grains measure) transferred 
to a graduated chlorimeter, which is, therefore, thus filled 
up to o , or the zero of the scale, and contains exactly 50 
grains of the chloride of lime under examination, whilst 
each degree or división of the scale contains only \ grain. 
1,000 grains measiire of the arsenious acid test-liquor are 
now poured into a glass beaker, and a few drops of a solu- 
tion of sulphate of Índigo added, in order to impart a f aint, 
but distinct, blue colour to it ; the glass is then to be 
shaken so as to give a circular movement to the liquid, and 
whilst it is whirling round the chloride of lime solution 
from the chlorimeter is gradually and cautiously added 
until the blue tinge given to the arsenious acid test-liquor 
is destroyed, care being taken to stir the mixture well with 
a glass rod during the whole process, and to stop as soon 
as the decoloration is complete. We will assume that 
in order to destroy the blue colour of 1,000 grains measure 
of the arsenious acid test-liquor 90 divisions or degrees of 
the chloride of lime solution have been employed. These 
90 divisions, therefore, contained the 10 grains of chlorine 


required to destroy the colour of the test solution ; and 
since each división represents \ grain of chloride of lime, 
45 grains of chloride of lime (10 grains of chlorine) were 
present in the 90 divisions so employed, from which the 
percentage strength may be ascertained : — 
For 45 : 10 :: 100 : 22*22. 

Tne chloride of lime examined, theref ore, contained 22^- 
per cent, (nearly) of chlorine. This method is extremely 
simple" and trustworthy when properly employed, but to 
ensure accuracy certain precautions mnst be adopted. In- 
stead of pouring the test liquor into the solution of the 
sample (as in alkalimetry), the solution of thesample must 
be poured into the test-liquor. If the contrary plan were 
adopted the hydrochloric acid of the test-liquor would 
libérate chlorine gas so fast that much would be lost, and 
the result rendered incorrect. By pouring, on the con- 
trary, the chloride of lime solution into the arsenious acid 
solution the chlorine is disengaged in small portions at a 
time, and meets with an abundance of arsenious acid to 
react on. The mixture of chloride of lime should also be 
employed turbid. 

Estimation of Alumina in Aluní Cake, etc. — Mr. Eow- 
land Williams, F.C.S., in a paper read before the Chemical 
Society in June, 1888, describes a method of estimating 
the alumina in alums, alum cakes, and sulphate of alumina, 
by which he obtained more accurate results than are ob- 
tained by the ordinary ammonia method of estimation. 
After pointing out several objections to the method of pre- 
cipitating the alumina by ammonia, he proceeds : — " There 
is another method for the estimation of alumina which is 
not so well known as the above. This is by means of 
sodium thiosulphate. Having had a very extensive and 
successful experience of this process, I can recommend it 
with confidence. Considerable practice is, however, neces- 
sary in order to secure good results, as certain conditions 
must be carefully attended to, otherwise the precipitation 
will be incomplete. The estimation is made in a mode- 
rately dilute solution. In the case of alum cake and sul- 


phate of alumina I dissolve 400 grains in water, filter, 
dilute to 10,000 grains. I use 1,000 grains of this solution 
(equal to 40 grains of the sample) for estimating the 
alumina. If any f ree acid is present it is neutralised by a 
few drops of carbonate of soda solution, and the whole 
diluted to about 8 ounces measure. A large quantity of 
crystallized thiosulphate of soda is then added, and tbe 
liquid boiled for at least half-an-hour, constantly replacing 
tbe water lost by evaporation. By tbe end of tbat time 
all tbe alumina will be precipitated in a finely-divided 
form, along witb more or less free sulpbur. Tbe precipí- 
tate is tben filtered ofí and wasbed well witb boiling 
water. Tbe filtration and wasbing take place very rapidly, 
and may generally be accomplisbed in about twenty 
minutes, tbis being a great saving of time in comparison 
witb tbe long and tedious wasbing by decantation, wbicb 
is necessary in tbe case of gelatinous alumina. Before 
filtration, it is ad vi sable to add a drop or two of carbonate 
of soda solution, lest tbe liquid should bave become sligbtly 
acid during boiling." 



Preparation of Lakes. — Brazil-wood Lake. — Cochineal Lake. — Lac Lake. 
— Madder Lake. — Orange Lake. — Yellow Lake. — Artificial Ultra- 
marine. — Twaddell's Hydrometer. — Dalton's Table showing the pro- 
portíon of Dry Soda in Leys of Different Densities. — Table of 
Strength of Caustic Soda Solutions at 59° F. — Table sbowing the 
Specitic Gravity corresponding with the degrees of Baumé's Hydro- 
meter. — Table of Boilrng Points of Alkaline Leys. — Table sbowing 
tbe Quantity of Caustic Soda in Leys of Different Densities. — Table 
showing tbe Quantity of Bleaching Liquid at 6 o Twaddell required 
to be added to Weaker Liquor to raise it to the given Strength. — 
Comparative French and English Thermometer Scales. — Weights and 
Measures of the Metrical System. — Table of French Weights and 
Measures. — List of "Works relating to Paper Manufacture. 

Preparation of Lakes. — These are prepared by either 
of the following processes: — 1. By adding a solution of 
alum, either alone or partly saturated with carbonate of 
potassa, to a filtered infusión or decoction of the colouring 
substance, and after agitation precipitating the mixture 
with a solution of carbonate of potash ("salt of tartar"). 
2. By precipitating a decoction or infusión of the colour- 
ing substance made with a weak alkaline ley, by adding a 
solution of alum. 3. By agitating recently precipitated 
alumina with a solution of the colouring matter, prepared 
as before, until the liquid is nearly discoloured, or the 
alumina acquires a sufficiently dark tint. The first method 
is usually employed for aciduous solutions of colouring 
matter, or for those whose tint is injured by alkalies ; the 
second for those that are brightened, or atleast uninjured, 
by alkalies ; the third, those colouring matters that have a 
great affinity for gelatinous alumina, and readily combine 
with it by mere agitation. By attention to these general 
rules, lakes may be prepared from almost all animal and 
vegetable colouring substances that yield their colour to 
water, many of which will be found to possess great beauty 
and permanence. 


The precise process adapted to each particular substance 
may be easily ascertained by takirig a few drops of its 
infusión or decoction, and observing the effects of alkalies 
and acids on the colour. 

The quantity of alum or of alumina employed should be 
nearly sufficient to decolour the dye-liquor, and the quan- 
tity of carbonate of potassa should be so proportioned to 
the alum as to exactly precipitate the alumina, without 
leaving free or carbonated alkali in the liquid. The first 
portion of the precipitate has the deepest colour, and the 
shade gradually becomes paler as the operation proceeds. 

A beautiful " tone " of violet, red, and even purple may 
be communicated to the colouring matter of cochineal by 
the addition of perchloride of tin ; the addition of arsen- 
iate of potassa (neutral arsenical salt) in like manner 
gives shades which may be sought for in vain with alum 
or alumina. After the lake is precipitated it must be 
carefully collected, washed with cold distilled water, or 
the purest rain- water, until it ceases to give out colour. 

Brazil-wood Lake. — 1. Take of ground Brazil wood 
1 Ib., water 4 gallons ; digest for 24 hours, then boil for 
30 or 40 minutes, and add of alum 1 \ Ib., dissolved in a 
little water ; mix, decant, strain, and add of solution of 
tin \ Ib. ; again mix well and filter ; to the clear liquid 
add, cautiously, a solution of salt of tartar or carbonate of 
soda, as long as a deep-coloured precipitate forms, care- 
fully avoiding excess. 2. Add washed and recently preci- 
pitated alumina to a strong and filtered decoction of 
Brazil wood. Inferior to the last. 

Cochineal Lake. — 1. Cochineal (in coarse powder) 1 oz. ; 
water and rectified spirit, of each, 2J ozs. ; digest for a 
week ; filter and precipitate the tincture with a few drops 
of solution of tin, added every 2 hours, until the whole of 
the colouring matter is thrown down ; lastly, wash the 
precipitate in distilled water and dry it ; very fine. 2. 
Digest powdered cochineal in ammonia water for a week, 
dilute the solution with a little water, and add the liquid 
to a solution of alum, as long as a precipitate falls, which 
is the lake. Equal to the last. 3. Coarsely powdered 



cochineal 1 Ib., water 2 gallons ; boil 1 hour, decant, strain, 
add a solution oí' salt of tartar, 1 Ib., and precipítate with 
a solution of alum. By adding the alum first, and preci- 
pitating the lake with the alkali, the colour will be slightly 
varied. All the above are sold as carminated or Florence 
lake, to which they are of ten superior. 

Lac Lake. — Boil fresh stick-lac in a solution of car- 
bonaten soda, filter the solution, precipítate with a solu- 
tion of alum, and proceed as before. A fine red. 

Madder Lake. — 1. Take of Dutch grappe or crop mad- 
der 2 oz., tie it in a cloth, beat it well in a pint of water in 
a stone mortar, and repeat the process with fresh water (about 
5 pints) until it ceases to yield colour ; next boil the mixed 
liquor in an earthen vessel, pour it into a large basin, and 
add of alum 1 oz., previously dissolved in boiling water, 1 
pint ; stir well, and while stirring, pour in gradually of a 
strong solution of carbonate of potassa (salt of tartar) \\ 
oz. : let the whole stand until cold, then pour off the 
supernatant liquor, drain, agítate the residue with boiling 
water, 1 quart (in sepárate portions), decant, drain, and 
dry. Product, ^ oz. The Society of Árts voted their gold 
medal to the author of the above formula. 2. Add a little 
solution of acétate of lead to a decoction of madder, to 
throw down the brown colouring matter, filter, add a solu- 
tion of tin or alum, precipítate with a solution of carbonate 
of soda or of potassa, and otherwise proceed as before. 
3. Ground madder, 2 lbs. ; water, 1 gallón ; macérate with 
agitation for 10 minutes, strain off the water, and press 
the remainder quite dry ; repeat the process a second and 
a third time ; then add to the mixed liquors, alum, ^ Ib., 
dissolved in water, 3 quarts ; and heat in a water-bath for 
3 or 4 hours, adding water as it evaporates : next filter, 
first through flannel, and when sufficiently cold, through 
paper ; then add a solution of carbonate of potassa as 
long as a precipítate falls, which must be washed until the 
water comes off colourless, and lastly, dry. If the alkali 
be added in 3 successive doses, 3 different lakes will be 
obtained, successively diminishing in beauty. 


Orange Lake. — Take of the best Spanish annotta 4 ozs. ; 
pearlash, f Ib. ; water, 1 gallón ; boil it for half an hour, 
strain, precipítate with alum, 1 Ib., dissolved in water, 1 
gallón, observing not to add the latter solution when it 
ceases to produce an effervescence or a precipítate. The 
addition of some solution of tin turns this lake a lemon 
yellow ; acids redden it. 

Yellow Lake. — 1. Boil Frenen berries, quercitron bark, 
or turmeric, 1 Ib., and salt of tartar, 1 oz., in water, 1 
gallón, until reduced to one half ; then strain the decoc- 
tion and precipítate with a solution of alum. 2. Boil 1 Ib. 
of the dye-stuff with alum, § Ib. ; water, 1 gallón, as be- 
fore, and precipítate the decoction with a solution of car- 
bonate of potash. 

Artificial Ultraxnarine. — This is obtained by several 
processes, of which the following are examples : — 1. Take 
kaolín, 37 parts ; sulphate of soda, 15 ; carbonate of soda, 
22 ; sulphur, 18 ; and charcoal, 8 parts ; mix these inti- 
mately, and heat in large covered crucibles for twenty- 
four to thirty hours. The resulting product is then to 
be again heated in cast-iron boxes at a modérate tempera- 
ture, until the required tint is obtained ; it is finally pul- 
verised, washed in a large quantity of water, and the 
floating partióles allowed to subside in a sepárate vessel ; 
the deposited colour is now collected and dried. 2. Expose 
to a low red heat, in a covered crucible as long as fumes 
are given off, a mixture composed of : kaolín, 2 parts ; 
anhydrous carbonate of soda and sulphur, of each 3 parts. 
Some persons use one-third less carbonate of soda. 

Twaddell's Hydrometer, which is much employed for 
ascertaining the strength of soda and chloride of lime Solu- 
tions, etc., is so graduated and weighted that the or zero 
mark is equal to 1,000, or the specific gravity of distilled 
water at the temperature of 60° F., and each degree on 
the scale is equal to '005 ; so that by multiplying this 
number by the number of degrees marked on the scale, 
and adding 1*, the real specific gravity is obtained. Thus 
10° Twaddell indicates a specific gravity of 1050,- or 1*05, 
and so on. 


Imitation Manilla Fulp from Wood. — Mr. George E. 
Marsball, of Turner's Falls, Mass., patented a process some 
years back by wbicb wood, under tbe action of bot water, 
and under a beavy pressure, acquires tbe cbaracteristic 
colour of manilla. Tbe wood, baving been cut as usual, 
is placed iu a closed vessel or tank capable of resisting 
bigb pressure, if necessary, of 450 lbs. to tbe square incb, 
tbe material being closely packed. At tbe bottom of tbis 
tank is an opening witb a valve, tbrougb wbicb tbe water, 
previously beated to a point abo ve boiling, and below 280°, 
is forced by a bydraulic press to sucb an extent as to 
satúrate and to completely permeate tbe wood, and to 
sof ten and drive out of tbe pores tbe gum, resins, and 
acids ; and if tbe temperature is kept sufficiently bot, it 
gives tbe pulp tbe desired colour belonging to a finely- 
made manilla paper. Tbis may be aided somewbat by tbe 
introduction oí a small quantity of some alkaline substance 
to act on tbe acids. Tbe water may be beated in a coil 
outside, and forced into tbe tank by a bydraulic press. 
Tbe water tbus beated and forced in leaves tbe wood or 
tbe pulp in tbe most desirable condition f or work and f or 
colour. Pulp made from wood treated below tbe boiling 
point will be wbite ; but tbis process is said to secure tbe 
desired manilla colour by raising tbe temperature to 240° 
or 250° for a ligbt pulp, and as bigb as 280° for a dark 
pulp. No pressure is required from tbe steam abo ve tbree 
atmospberes, but tbe press may give from 450 to 500 lbs. 
to tbe square incb, and practice bas sbown tbat tbe 
greater tbe pressure tbe more speedy is tbe operation on 
tbe wood.* 

Testing Ultramarines. — Tbe sample of ultramarine 
sbould be examined as to its power of resisting tbe action 
of alum solutions, wbicb may readily be done by tbe 
metbod suggested by Mr. Dunbar : — " Dissolve tbe same 
amount of eacb sample in water, and mix in tbis water 
about \ Ib. of pulp. Wben tborougbly mixed, and eacb 
lot of pulp is well and evenly coloured, add one glassful 
* New York Paper Trade Journal, 1878. 


of the ordinary mili alum liquor, eitlier froni puré alum, 
or aluminous cake to each, losing no time over the opera 
tion. Stir each well and continuously with a glass rod, 
and note the glasses carefully as to the length of time 
each sample keeps its colour." To ascertain the staining 
poicer, so called, of the ultramarine, and at the same time 
the tone, or tint, which it will impart when mixed with 
pulp, 25 grains of each sample should be mixed with 100 
of kaolin or sulphate of lime (pearl hardening) and the 
several mixtures then worked up into a paste with a little 
water by means of a spatula, when the differences in the 
staining power of the respective samples will at once 
become apparent if either be of inferior quality. To make 
the test more complete, a like amount of commercially 
puré ultramarine should be mixed with 100 grains of 
kaolin for the purpose of comparison. In this way a 
ready judgment may be formed as to the quality of the 
sample under examination. 

Strength of Paper. — The comparative strength of 
samples of paper may be determined by cutting strips an 
inch in width from each sample, and suspending these 
from a rigid iron bar. Weights are then cautiously 
attached to each until the sample breaks, when the differ- 
ence in the weights sustained by the respective samples 
before the breaking point is reached will determine the 
comparative strength of the samples tested. Mr. Parkin- 
son, of St. Greorge's Road, Preston, furnishes a simple 
contrivance for determining the breaking points of paper, 
and so comparing their valué. 





gravity of 




1-56 * 





Dry Soda 
per cent, 
by weight. 











gravity of 



Dry Soda 

per cent. 

íy weight 























-Table of Strength of Oaustic Soda Solutions at 59° F. = 
150° C. (Tünnermak). 

Speciflc Gravity 


Per cent, of 

Equivalent per cent, 
of 60 per cent. 
Caustic Soda. 

(Water 1,000). 





































































































































III. — Table showing the Specific Gbavity CORRESPONDINS "WITH tbe 
Degrees op Batjme's Hydrometer. 

Liquids denser than Water. 








































































































































































IV. — Table of Boiling Points of Alkaline Leys. 



¡Percentage of 

Boils at 






Soda .... 




Potash .... 




Soda .... 




Potash. . . . 




Soda .... 




Soda .... 




Potash .... 




Soda .... 




Soda .... 




Pota sil .... 




Soda .... 




Potash .... 




Soda .... 




Potash .... 




Potash .... 




Soda .... 




Potash.. . . 




V. — Table showing the Qtjantitt oe Caustic Soda in Leys of 







per cent. 


per cent. 














































Proportions Eequired. 

Streñgth of 
Sample in ¿°. 


Given Sample. 

Liquor at 6 o . 




8 o 























1 2 














) J 



4 o 











3 o 





i 2 



VII. — Comparative French and English Thermometer Scales. 

French or Centigrade. 
Cent, or C. 

5 „ 

10 „ 

15 „ 

' 25 

30 „ 

35 „ 


45 „ 

50 „ 

55 „ 


English or Fahrenheit. 

32 Fahr. or F. 









Comparative French and English Thermometer Scales — coiitinued. 
French or Centígrado. English or Fahrenheit. 

60 Cent. 



140 Fahr. 









































("Water "boils) 












(Mercury boils) 




(Mercury boils) 

VIII. — Weights and Measures of the Metrical System. 
(From the British Pharmacopoeia.) 

1 Milligramme = the thousandth part of one gramme, or - 001 gramme. 

1 Centigramme — the hundredth „ „ 0-01 „ 

1 Décigramme =z the tenth „ „ 0-1 „ 

1 Gramme — weightof a cubic centimétre of water at 4 o C. 1"0 „ 

1 Décagramme = ten grammes . . . . 10 - „ 

1 Hectogramme = one hnndred grammes . . 100-0 „ 

1 Kilogramme = one thousand grammes . . .1,000-0 „ 

measures of capacitt. 

1 Millilitre = 1 cubic centimétre, or the measure of 1 gramme of water. 
lCentilitre= 10 ,, „ 10 „ 

1 Décilitre = 100 „ „ 100 „ 

lLitre= 1,000 „ ,, 1,000 „ 

MEASURES of length. 

1 Millimetre := the thousandth part of one métre, or 0*001 métre. 
1 Centimétre = the hundredth „ „ 0-01 ,, 

1 Décimétre = the tenth „ ,, 0*1 ,, 

1 Métre = the ten-millionth part of a quarter of the meridian of the 

IX. — Table of French Weights and Measures. 

Kilogramme, 1,000 grammes, equals 2 lbs. 3f ozs. nearly. 
Gramme (the unit) equals 15-432 grains. 


1 Litre (the unit) equals 34 fluid ozs. nearly. 



Métre (the unit) equals 39-371 inckes. 

Décimétre (lOth of a métre) „ 3-9371 ,, 

Centimétre (lOOth of a métre) „ 0-3937 ,, 
Millimétre (l,000th of a métre) „ 0-0393 „ 

List of Works relating to Paper Manufacture. 

"Practical Eemarks on Modero. Paper." J. Murray. Edinburgh, 

" Manuel du Fabricant des Papiers." L. S. Le Normand. París, 1834. 

" L'Industrie de la Papetrie." G. Planche. París, 1853. 

" Die Fabrikation des Papiers." L. Müller. Berlín, 1855. 

" Manufacture of Paper and Boards." A. Proteaux. Philadelpbia, 

«Manufacture of Paper." C. Hofmann. Philadelpbia, 1873. 

" Pflanzenfasir." Hugo Müller. Leipzig, 1873. 

"Bamboo Considered as a Paper-making Material." London, 1875. 

" Etudes sur les Fibres Vegetales." Yétillart. París, 1876. 

• ' Technology of the Paper Trade " (Cantor Lectures) . Arnot. Journal 
¡áociety of Arts, 1877. 

"The Practical Paper-maker." J. Dunbar. London, 1881. 

" Forestry and Forest Products." Edinburgh, 1884. 

"A Treatise on Paper." R. Parkinson. Preston, 1886. 

"Manufacture of Paper." C. T. Davis. Philadelphia, 1887. 

" Manufacture of Paper." Tomlinson. 

" Text Book of Paper-making." C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan. 

Arríeles on paper-making will also be found in the following encyclo- 
psedias, journals, etc: — 

" Encyclopsedia Britannica," vol. xvii. ; " Encyclopsedia Metropoli- 
tana," 1845; "Tomlinson's Cyclopsedia ; " "New American Cyclopse- 
dia ; " "British Manufacturing Industries;" "English Cyclopsedia;" 
"Encyclopsedia Americana;" "Penny Cyclopsedia;" Paper Makers' 
Monthly Journal ; Paper Mahers' Circular; Paper Trade Journal; Ameri- 
can Paper Trade Journal, 


A CETIC acid, 64. 98 
**■ Acid, arsenious, process, 231 

or bisulphite processes, ob- 
jections to, 74 

boracic, 46 

carbonic, 97 

fluo-silicic, 175 

hydrochloric, 55, 232 

hypochlorous, 98 

nitric, 66 

nitrous, 66 

nitro-hydrochloric, 64 

oxalic, 98 

processes, McDougall's 
boiler for, 72 

sulphuric, 47, 99 
anhydrous, 225 

sulphurous, 55, 175 

test, 224 

test, preparation of, 225 

treatment of wood, 64 
Acids, action of, on cellulose, 2 
Acicular fibres, 3 
Action of acids on cellulose, 2 
Adamsonia, 85 
Adamson's process, 77 
African esparto, 47 
Agalite, 115 
Agar-agar, 178 
Agave Americana, 8 
Alexandria rags, 21 
Algerian esparto, 47 
Alkali, caustic, 48 
testing, 224 
Alkalimeter, Mohr's, 223 
Alkalimeters, 222 
Alkalimetry, 221 

Alkaline leys, boiling points of, 243 
Alkalis, sampling, 227 
Alurn, 116 

Alurn, bleach liquor, 100 

cake, estimation of alumina in, 

concentrated, 119 

crystallised, 119 

liquor, 240 

pearl, 119 

porous, 167 
Alumina, estimation of, in alurn, &c, 

sulphate of, 100 
Aluminium, chloride of, 100 

hypochlorite of, 100 
Aluminous cake, 119 
American combinations for colouring, 

method of sizing, 123 

ochre, 167 

refining engines, Mr. Wyatt on, 

system of soda recoverv 218 

wood pulp, 60 
Ammonia, 233 
Ammoniacal water, 6 
Andreoli's electrolytic bleaching pro- 
cess, 96 
Anhydrous soda, 225 

sulphuric acid, 225 
Aniline blues, 166 

reds, 166 

sulphate of, 8 

triethyl rose, 98 
Animal size, preparation of, 120, 122 

sized papers, 123 

or tub-sizing, 122 
Annotta, Spanish, 238 
Antichlor, 109 
Antique paper, 157 
Apparatus, disintegrating, 72 

evaporating, 205 



Aqua regia, 66 

Arnot, Mr., on beating-engines, 102 

on finishing, 160 
Arnot's method of alkali testing, 229 
Artificial flowers, colouring paper for, 

ultramarine, 238 
Arsenious acid process, 231 
Asbestos, 73, 115 
Ash, black, 219 
Aussedat's process, 63 
Azure blue, 170 

BACK-WATERpump, Bertrams', 19f 
Bagging, oíd, 10 
Balsam, Canadá, 179 
Baltic rags, 21 
Bamboo cañe, 10, 18 
Banibusa vulgaris, 18 
Banana fibre, 10 
Bank-notes, water-marking, 147 
Baobab, 85 
Bark fibres, 6 

oak, 166 

paper mulberry, 10 
Barre and Blondel's process, 66 
Bast bagging, 10 
Baumé's hydrometer, 242 
Beakers, 222, 224 
Beater, 37 

Jordán, 103, 104 

Kingsland, 104 
Beating, 101 

Dunbar's observations on, 102 

engine, 103 

Bertrams', 105 
Forbes', 105 
Umpherston's, 105 

engines, Arnot on, 102 

operations of, 107 

or refining, 101 
Belgian rags, 20 
Bentley and Jackson's boiler, 80 

cooling and damping rolls, 189 

drum-washer, 185 

dry felt self-acting regulator, 186 

glazing calender, 155 

rag-cutter, 24 
engine, 38 

single-cylinder machine, 153 

web-ripping machine, 198 
Benzine, 5, 77 
Berlín blue, 168 
Bertrams' back-water pump, 195 

beating-engine, 105 

Bertrams' conical pulp-saver, 144 
damping-rolls, 155 
edge-runner, 82 
esparto-cleaner, 40 
large paper machine, 134 
rag boiler, 29 

cutting-machine, 23 
engine, 37 
revolving strainer and knotter, 
I revolving knife-cutter, 162 

reeling machine, 197 
single-sheet cutter, 162 
web-glazing calender, 196 
willowing and dusting machine, 
Beetroot refuse, 10 
Beyrout rags, 21 
Bichromate of potassa, 165 
Binders' clippings, 10 
Birch, 60 
Bisulphite of lime, 71 

magnesium, 70 
process, Blitz's, 72 
Francke's, 68 
Graham's, 73 
Mitscherlich's, 71 
objections to, 74 
Black ash, 219 
calicóes, 20 
cotton, 20 
Frankfort, 171 
lamp, 166 
Blacks, 20 
Bleach, 93 

liquor, alum, 100 
Wilson's, 100 
zinc, 99 
mixer, 92 

pump, Donkin's, 193 
Bleaching, 89 
agent, 90 
with chloride of lime, 92 

chlorine gas, Glaser's pro- 
cess, 93 
C. Watt, jun.'s, electrolytic pro- 
cess, 94 
electrolytic, Andreoli's process, 

Hermite's process, 96 
esparto, 50 
liquid, table showing quantity to 

to be used, 244 
liquor, 50, 91 

preparation of, 92 



Bleaching liquors, 3 

Lunge's process of, 98 

new method of, 100 

operations, 89 

powder, 92 

estimation of chlorine in, 

Fresenius' rnethod, 231 
Gay-Lussac's method, 231 
Bleaching, sour, 91 

Thompson's process, 97 

Young's method, 100 
Blending, 112 
Blitz's process, 72 
Blotting-papers, 21, 181 
Blue, 166 

azure, 170 

Berlín, 168 

Bremen, 170 

cottons, 20 

dark, 170 

índigo, 166 

linens, 20 

mineral, 171 

palé, 170 

paper, 19 

Paris, 169 

Prussian, 165 

rags, 19 

smalts, 165 
Blues, 20 

aniline, 166 
Boiler, Bentley and Jackson's, 80 

Boeckner's, 45 
Boiling, American, 60 

esparto, 41 

rags, 29 

straw, 81 

waste paper, 86 
Boracic acid, 46 
Bórax, 169 
Boxes, suction, 148 
Brazil wood, 166 

lake, 236 
Breaking half-stuff, 39 

points of paper, method of deter- 
mining, 240 
Breaking and washing, 34 
Breast-roll, 149 
Bremen blue, 170 
" Broke " paper, 85 
Bromine, 6 

water, 6 
Broom, 10 
Broussonetia papyrifera, 18 

Brown, 167 
Brown, dark, 170 
reddish, 172 
Bucking-keir, 88 
Buckwheat straw, 10 
Buff envelope, 167 
Bunsen burner, 225 
Burettes, 222 

flALCINED soda, 93 
^ Calciner, 206 
Calcium, acétate of, 98 

chloride of, 109, 230 

hypochlorite of, 3 

salts, 99 
Calender, glazing, 154 
Calendering, 154 

super, Mr. Wyatt 011, 158 
Calicóes, black, 20 
Canadá balsam, 179 
Cañe, bamboo, 10 

rattan, 10 
Caoutchouc, 73 
Carbonate of lime, 119 

magnesia, 46 

potassa, 235, 236 

soda, 31 
Carbonell's esparto process, 46 
Carbonic acid, 97 
Carbonisation, 75 
Cardboard, 182 

with two faces by ordinary ma- 
chinery, 182 

work, 179 
Carminated lake, 237 
Carrageen moss, 178 
Carrying tubes, 143 
Castile soap, 121 
Caustic alkali, 48 

potash, 3, 7 

soda, 31 

ley, 31 

table showing quantities of 
inleys of different den- 
sities, 243 
Cauticising soda, 32, 205 

tanks, 218 
Cellulose, 1 

action of acids on, 2 

determination of, 5 

of flax, 4 

physical characteristics of, 3 

white, 76 
Chemical combination, 224 

processes, 55 



Chemical wood pulp, 54 
Chilled-iron glazing-rolls, 156 
China clay, 114 

grass, 10 
Chloride of aluminium, 100 

calcium, 101, 230 

lime, 47, 230 

bleaching with, 92 
testing samples of, 232 

magnesium, 96 

potassium, 95 

sodium, 95, 109 

zinc, 99 
Chlorimeter, 232 
Chlorimetry, 231 
Chlorine, 2, 90, 232 

gas, bleaching with, 93 

in bleaching powder, estimation 
of, 230 

test f or, 110 
Chronie, lemon, 170 

orange, 166 

y ello w, 166 
Cinnabar, 171 
Citrate of tin, 169 
Clarifier, Koeckner's, 199 
Clay, China, 114 
Clogging, 116 
" Cióse" paper, 112 
Cobalt, oxide of, 165 
Cochineal, 121, 166 

lake, 236 
Colcothar, 170 
Coloured cotton, 20 

papers, 165 
Colouring, 121 

American combinations for, 167 

materials, mixing, with pulp, 168 

matters used in paper making, 

paper for artificial flowers, 168 
Commercial sodas, examination of, 

Comparative cost of animal and engine 
sizing, estímate of, 128 

French and English thermometer 
scales, 244 
Composition for waterproof paper, 

Concentrated alum, 119 
Conical pulp-saver, 144 
Cooling and damping rolls, Bentley 

and Jackson's, 189 
Copal, white, 179 
Copper, green, 170 

Copper, hydrated oxide of, 175 

sulphate, 146 
Copperas, 165 
Copying-paper, 120 
Corchorus capsularis, 4 
Cork, 180 

paper, 180 
Cost of animal and engine sizing, com- 
parative estímate of, 128 
Cotton fibre, 3 

filaments of, 7 

pieces, 20 

rags, 10 

seed waste, 10 

oil soap, 121 

superfine whites, 20 

waste, 10 

wool, 10 
Cottons, blue, 20 

outshot, 20 

unbleached, 20 
Coucher, 130 
Couch-rolls, 149 

Coupier and Mellier's process, 80, 84 
Crop madder, 237 
Crystallised alum, 119 
Cupro-ammonium, 2, 174 

Wright's process of preparing, 175 
Cutting, 22, 161 

machine, 23 

Vernos, 187 
Cutter, single-sheet, 162 
Cutters, 22 
Cylinder, drying, 185 

machine, single, 152 

washing, 193 
Cylinders, drying, 151 

DALTON'S table showing proportion 
of dry soda in leys of different 
densities, 241 
Damping-rolls, Bertrams', 155 
Dandy-roll, 144 
Deckle, 130 

frame, 143 
strap, 143 
De la Rue's improvements in water- 

marks, 147 
Determination of cellulose, 5 
Determining the real valué or per- 
centage of commercial sodas, chloride 
of lime, &c, 221 
Devil, Donkin's, 27 
Dextrin, 2 


25 » 

Diana's process for making paper or 
cardboard with two faces by ordinary 
machinery, 182 
Digester, 65 

Disinfecting machine, 12 
Disintegrating apparatus, 79 
Doctor, the, 150 
Donkin's bleach-mixer, 92 
pump, 193 

glazing machine, 157 
press, 157 

platflrplaning machine, 191 

rag boiler, 30 

dusting machine, 26 

washing cylinder for rag-engine, 
Double crown, 164 

demy, 164 

royal, 164 
Double-sized paper, 126 
Drab, 167 
Drainers, 39 
Draining, 39 

Dr. Mitscherlich's process, 71 
Drum-washer, 34 

Bentley and Jackson's, 185 
Dry-felt regulator, self-acting, 186 
Drying cylinder, 185 

cylinders, 151 
Dunbar's method of treating esparto, 

observations on beating, 102 
Duster, 26 
Dusting, 26 

Dutch grappe madder, 237 
Dyers' wood waste, 10 

EDGE-RUNNER, Bertrams', 82 
Ekman's process, 70 
Elastic fibres, 3 

packing, 72 
Electrolytic bleaching process, An- 
dreoli's, 96 

Hermite's, 96 
C. Watt's, 94 
Electrotypes for water-marking, 146 
Engine, beating, 103 

Bertrams', 105 
Forbes', 105 
Umpherston's, 105 
Marshall's perfecting, 201 
size, French method of prepar- 

iug, 120 
sizing, 115 

Engines, beating, Mr. Arnot on, 102 

refining, American, Mr. Wyatt 
on, 108 
English green, 172 

pink, 172 
Envelope, buff, 167 

orange-red gold, 167 

yellow gold, 167 
Eosine, 166 

Equivalents, chemical, 224 
Esparto, African, 47 

Algerian, 47 

bleaching, 50 

boiler, Sinclair's, 42, 43 

boiling, 41 

cleaner, Bertrams', 40 

Dunbar's treatment of , 48 

fibre, 4 

Gabes, 47 

grass, 10, 16 

Mallary's process for, 46 

Oran, 47 

picking, 40 

preliminary treatment of, 40 

Carbonell's process for, 46 

Sfax, 47 

Spanish, 47 

Susa, 47 

Trípoli, 47 

washing boiled, 49 

willowing, 41 

Young's process for boiling, 50 
Estirnation of alumina in alum cake, 
&c, 233 

of chíorine in bleaching powder, 

of commercial sodas, 221 
Eucalyptus, oil of, 178 
Evaporating apparatus, 205 
Evaporator, esparto, 206 

Porion's, 208 

Roeckner's, 206 

Yaryan's, 208 
Evaporators, American, 61, 208 
Examination of commercial sodas, 

"PEEBLY-RIBBED, or smooth libres, 

Felt, 72, 101 
Felting, 131 
Fern leaves, 10 

Ferrocyanide of potassium, 165 
Fibre, "banana, 10 
cotton, 3 


Fibre, esparto, 4 

flax, 7 

hemp, 8 

jute, 4, 8 

linen, 4 

Manilla, 4 

sulphite, and resin, 76 

yellow pine, 4 
Fibres, acicular, 3 

bark, 6 

elastic, 3 

round-ribbed, 5 

smooth, or feebly-ribbed, 5 

spiral, 8 

straw, 4 

various, treatment of, 80 

vegetable, micrographic exami- 
nation of, 5 

vegetable, recognition of, by the 
microscope, 6 
Fibrous waste, 11 
Finished paper, packing the, 163 
Finishing, 157 

Arnot on, 160 

house, 163 

and sizing, 132 
First press-roll, 150 
Flask, 227 
Flax, cellulose of, 4 

fibre, or linen, 7 

New Zealand, 8, 10 

tow, 11 

waste, 10 
Flocks, 73 
Florence lake, 237 
Foolscap, 164 

Forbes' beating-engine, 105 
Foreign rags, 20 
Fourdrinier machine, 133 
Francke's bisulphite process, 68 
Frankfort black, 169 
French and English thermometer 
scales, comparative, 244 

measure of volume, 245 

rags, 20 

weights and measures, table of, 
Fresenius' method of estimating bleach- 

ing powder, 231 
Friction-glazing, 157 
Fridet and Matussiére's process, 66 
Furnace, incinerating, 208 
Fustians, 20 
Fustic, 169 

n ABES esparto, 47 

" Gaine's process for making parch- 

ment paper, 182 
Gamboge, 169 
Gas, chlorine, bleaching with, 93 

receiver, 65 
Gay-Lussac's method of estimating 

bleaching-powder, 231 
Germán rags, 21 
Glaser's process for bleaching with 

chlorine gas, 93 
Glauber's salt, 109 
Glazing calen der, 154 

press, Donkin's, 157 

rolls, chilled-iron, 156 

web, 154 
Glucose, 2 
Glue pieces, 122 

stock, 124 
Glycerin, 120 
Graham's process, 73 
Grass, China, 10 

esparto, 10, 16 

sea, 11 
Green, copper, 170 

English, 172 

palé, 170 

Schweinfurth, 171 
Grey linens, 20 
Ground madder, 237 

wood pulp, 85 
Guillotine rag-cutter, 24 
Gum arabic, 169 

sandarac, 179 

tragacanth, 168 
Gunny, 20 

bags, 10 
Gutta-percha, 147 

HALF jute and linen, 20 
stuff, 39, 101 

breaking, 39 
Hemp fibre, 8 

Manilla, 4, 10 
sizal, 8 
tarred, 20 
waste, 10 
white, 20 
Hermite's electrolytic bleaching pro- 
cess, 96 
High-pressure boiler, 63 
Hollander, or rag-engine, 34, 129 
Home rags, 20 
Hop-bines, 10 



Hydrate of soda, 225 
Hydrated oxide of copper, 175 
Hydro-cellulose, 1 
Hydrochloric acid, 55, 232 
Hydro-extractor, 94 
Hydrometer, Baumé's, 242 

Twaddell's, 238 
Hypochlorite of aluminium, 100 

calcium, 3 

lime, 92, 98, 230 

soda, 8 

sodram, 96 
Hypochlorous acid, 98 
Hyposulphite of soda, 110 

TODIDE of potassium, 111 

J- Imitation Manilla pulp from wood, 

Imperial, 164 
Incinerating furnace, 208 
Indiarubber, vulcanised, 223 
índigo, 98, 166 

sulphate of, 232 
Ink, lithographic, 180 
Introduction of wood pulp, 17 
Irish moss, 178 
Iron, oxide of, 34 
Iron, pernitrate of, 165 

sulphate of, 170 
Isinglass, 179 

TAPANESE paper, new, 180 

" Jordan's beating engine, 103, 104 

Jouglet's process for waterproof paper, 

Jute fibre, 4, 8 

Manilla, &c, 84 

spinners' waste, 20 

waste, 10, 20 

Kaolín, 114, 182 
Keegan's process, 59 
Killing the colour, 12Í 
Kingsland beating-engine, 104 
Knife, revolving, 161 
Knotter and strainer, revolving, 137 
Kollergang, or edge-runner, 8¿ 

T AC lake, 237 

•^ Laid paper, 130 

Lake, Brazil-wood, 236 

carminated, 237 

cochineal, 236 

Florence, 237 

Lake, lac, 237 

madder, 237 

orange, 238 

scarlet, 171 
Lakes, preparation of, 235 
Lamp-black, 166, 169 
Leaching, 218 

tanks, 218 
Lead, nitrate of, 167 

white, 171 
Leather waste, 11 
Leghorn rags, 21 
Lemon chrome, 170 
Leys, aikaline, boiling point of, 243 

of different densities, tabíe show- 
ing quantities of caustic soda 
in, 243 
Lime, bisulphite of, 71 

carbonate of, 119 

chloride of, 23, 47, 110 
bleaching with, 92 
testing, 232 

hypochlorite of, 92, 98, 230 

milk of, 33, 72, 110 

sulphate of, 100 
Limed skins, 122 
Linen, 4 

fibre, 4 

or flax fibre, 7 

pieces, 20 

rags, 10 

waste, 10 
Linens, blue, 20 

extra fine, 20 

grey, 20 

strong, 20 

white, 20 
Liquor, bleaching, preparation of, 92 
Liquors, bleaching, 3 

spent, recovery of soda from, 218 
Lithographic ink, 180 

paper, 180 
Litmus paper, 183 
Lixiviation, 75 
Loading, 114 
Logwood, 166 
Long measure, French, 246 
Lunge's bleaching process, 9 

TU" ACHINE, Bentley and Jackson's 
■***• perfecting, 201 
web-ripping, 198 
Bertrams' large paper, 13 
rag-cutting, 23 
reeling, 197 



Machine, Bertrams' web-glazing, 196 
willowing and dusting, 26 

disinfecting, 12 

Donkin's plate-planing, 191 
rag-dusting, 26 

Fourdrinier, 133 

rag-cutting, 23 

roll-bar planing, 191 

single-cylinder, 152 

web-winding, 188 

sizing, 126 

Verny's paper-cutting, 187 

wire and its accessories, 142 

Yankee, 152 
Machinery, making paper by, 133 

used in paper-making, 184 
Machines, wet, 57 
Madder, Dutch, 237 

ground, 237 

lake, 237 
Magnesia, carbonate of, 46 

sulphate of, 46 
Magnesian limestone, 69 
Magnesite, 46, 70 
Magnesium, bisulphite of, 70 

chloride of, 96 
Maize husks and stems, 10 
Making the paper, 130 

paper or cardboard with two 
faces by ordinary machinery, 

paper by hand, 129 
machinery, 133 
Mallar/s process f or esparto, 46 
Manganese, peroxide of, 94 
Manilla fibre, 4 

hemp, 4, 10 

jute, &c, 84 

paper, 85 
Manilla, imitation, from wood pulp, 

Manning winder, 159 
Maori-prepared phormium, 8 
Materials, raw, 10 

used in paper-making, 9 
Marking, water, 146 
Marshall's perfecting engine, 201 
McDougalFs boiler for acid processes, 

Mechanical processes, 78 

wood pulp, 113 

Voelter's process of pre- 
paring, 78 
Megass, or cañe trash, 10 
Mellier's process, 84 

Method of sizing, American, 123 
Metrical system, weights and measures 

of, 245 
Micrographic examination of vegetable 

fibres, 5 
Microscope, recognition of vegetable 

fibres by, 6 
Midfeather, 35 
Milk of lime, 33, 72, 110 
Mülboard, 175, 182 
Mincing the fibre, 102 
Mineral blue, 171 
orange, 166 
Miscellaneous papers, 174 
Mixed fines, 20 
prints, 20 
Mixing colouring materials with pulp, 

Mohr's alkalimeter, 223 
Molasses, 180 
Morfit's process for toughening paper, 

Morocco papers, stains for, 171 
Mucilage, 94 
Mustard oil, 46 
stems, 10 

NASCENT chlorine, 96 
Netting, oíd, 11 
New Japanese paper, 180 

method of bleaching, 100 
New rags, 20 
New Zealand flax, 8, 10 
Nitric acid, 66 
Nitro-hydrochloric acid, 64 
Nitrous acid, 66 
Notes and tables, 235 
Nutgalls, 166 
Nuttall's rag-cutter, 24 

AAK-BAEK, 166 

U Oakum, 11 

Objections to the acid or bisulphite 

process, 74 
Ochre, American, 167 

yellow, 165, 166 
Oil, boiled, 179 

cotton-seed, soap, 121 

of eucalyptus, 178 

linseed, 179 

mustard, 46 

resin, 178 

of turpentine, 179 

of vitriol, 100 
Oiled paper, 180 



Oíd bagging, 10 

bast bagging, 10 

canvas, 10 

netting, 11 

rope, 10 

style, 157 
Operation of beating, 107 
Oran esparto, 47 
Orange chrome, 166 

lake, 238 

mineral, 166 

red gold envelope, 167 

yellow, 171 
Organic acid, 99 
Outshot cottons, 20 
Outshots (whites), 20 
Overhaulers, 22 
Oxalic acid, 98 
Oxide of cobalt, 165 

iron, 34 

zinc, 99 

PACKING the finished paper, 163 
Palé blue, 170 
Panels, millboard, 175 
Pasteboard, 179 
Paper, animal sized, 123 
antique, 157 
blotting, 21, 181 
blue, 19 
breaking points of, method of 

determining, 240 
or cardboard with two faces made 

by ordinary machinery, 182 
colouring,for artificial flowers,168 
copying, 120 
cork, 180 

cutting machine, Verny's, 187 
double sized, 126 
hand-made, 129 
new Japanese, 180 
machine, Bertrams' large, 134 
Fourdrinier's, 133 
Yankee, 152 
making by hand, 129 
by machinery, 133 
machinery used in, 184 
materials used in, 9 
manilla, 85 

imitation manilla, from wood,239 
Morfit's process for toughening, 

mulberry, 18 
bark, 10 

Paper, oiled, 180 

oíd style, 157 

parchment, 181 

shavings, 58 

sizes of, 164 

strength of, 240 

Parkinson's contrivance foi 
determining, 240 

toned, 165 

toughening, 178 

tracing, 179 

transparent, 179 

turmeric, 183 

varnished, 179 

vegeto-mineral, 115 

waste, 85 

boiling, 86 

Rvan's process for treating, 

water-marked, 130 . 

waterproof, 174 

Jouglet's process, 177 

for Windows, 181 

coloured, 165 

miscellaneous, 174 

Morocco, stains for, 171 

printing, 164 

satin, stains for, 172 

test, 183 

wrapping, 178 

wriüng, 164 
Parchment liquor, 171 

paper, 181 

shavings, 171 
Paris blue, 169 
Parker and Blackman's disinfecting 

machine, 12 
Parting, 131 
Partington's process, 71 
Pearl alum, 119 
Pearlash, 238 
Pearl hardening, 114 
Peat, 10 
Pectin, 6 
Pectose, 6 

Perchloride of tin, 236 
Perfecting engine, Marshall's 201 
Pernitrate of iron, 165 
Peroxide of manganese, 94 
Petroleum, 178 
Phormium tenax, 8 
Physical characteristics of cellulose, 3 
Picking esparto, 40 
Pictet and Brélaz's process, 64 
Pieces, cotton, 20 



Pieces, linen, 20 
Pink, 166 

English, 172 
Plate-glazing, 157 

calender, reversing, 191 

planing machine, 190 
Poplar, 10, 60 
Porion's evaporator, 208 
Porous alum, 167 
Potash, 74 

carbonate of, 235 

caustic, 3, 7 

yellow prussiate of, 165 
Potassa, carbonate of, 235 
Potassium, chloride of, 95 

iodide of, 111 

ferrocyanide of, 165 
Potcher, 37 
Poucher, 39 
Poumaréde and Figuier's process for 

parchment paper, 181 
Preliminary operations, 19 

treatment of esparto, 40 
Preparation of animal size, 122 

bleaching liquor, 92 

lakes, 235 

test acid, 225 
Press, glazing, Donkin's, 157 
Press-rolls, 150 
Presse-páte, 51 
Printing-paper, 103 

papers, 164 
Prints, light, 20 

mixed, 20 
Process, Adamson's, 77 

American wood pulp, 60 

Andreoli's electrolytic bleaching, 

arsenious acid, 231 

Aussedat's, 63 

Barre and Blondel's, 66 

Blitz's, 72 

Carbonell's esparto, 46 

Coupier and Mellier's, 80 

C. Watt's electrolytic bleaching, 

Diana*s, for making paper with 
two faces by ordinary ma- 
chinery, 182 

Dr. Mitscherlich's, 71 

Eckman's, 70 

Francke's bisulphite, 68 

Fridet and Matussiére's, 66 

Gaine's, for making parchment 
papyjr, 182 

Process, Graham s, 73 

Hermite's electrolytic bleaching, 

Jouglet's, for preparing water- 
proof paper, 177 
Keegan's, 59 
Lunge's bleaching, 98 
Mallarv's esparto, 46 
Mellier's, 84 
Morfit's, 178 
Partington's, 71 
Pictet and Brelaz's, 64 
Poumaréde and Figuier's, 181 
retting, 129 
Eitter and Kellner's, 71 
Eyan's, 87 

Scoffern and Tidcombe's, 174 
Sinclair's, 58 
Thompson's, 97 
Thune's, 79 
Voelter's, 78 
Watt and Burgess's, 55 
Wrigbfs, 175 
Young's, 50 

Young and Pettigrew's, 66 
Processes, acid or bisulphite, objec- 
tions to, 74 

McDougalFs boiler for, 72 
chemical, 55 
mechanical, 78 
sulphide, 77 
sulphite, 68 
Prussian blue, 165 
Prussiate of potash, 165 
Pulp, ground wood, 85 
long-fibred, 111 
mechanical wood, 113 
mixing colouring matter with, 

rag, 72 
Pulp saver, 143 

conical, 144 
strainers, 137 

Bertrams' revolving, 137 
Boeckner's, 140 
Pulp, sulphite, 68, 160 
wood, American, 60 

first introduced by Mr. C. 

Watt, 17 
imitation Manilla from, 
Pump, vacuum, 149 





KAG- bagging, 11 
boiler, Bertrams', 29 
Donkin's, 30 

cutter, Nuttall's, 24 

cutting-machine, Bertrams', 23 
Donkin's, 26 

engine. 34 

Bentley and Jackson's, 38 
Bertrams', 37 

pulp, 72 
Kags, 11 

Alexandria, 21 

Bíltic, 21 

Belgian, 20 

Beyrout, 21 

blue, 19 

boiling, 29 

cotton, 10 

country, 21 

disinfecting, 12 

foreign, 20 

Frenen, 20 

Germán, 21 

home, 20 

Leghorn, 21 

linen, 10 

new, 20 

Russian, 21 

sorting, 19 

treatment of, 19 

Trieste, 21 

Turkey, 21 

woollen, 21 
Rattan cañe, 10 
Raw materials, 10 
Recognition of vegetable fibres by the 

microscope, 6 
Recovery of soda, American system, 

from spent liquor, 204 
Red, cherry, 170 

dark, 170 

litmus paper, 183 

ochre, 172 

palé, 171 

Turkey, 170 

Venetian, 166 
Reds, aniline, 166 
Reeds, 10 

Reeling machine, Bertrams', 197 
Refining or beating, 101 

engine, 159 

Jordan's, 103 

engines, American, Mr. Wyatt 
on, 103 

Regulating box, 136 
Resin, 6, 115 

oil, 178 

size, 118 

soap, 116 
Resinous soaps, 179 
Retree, 85, 164 
Retting, 4 

process of, 129 
Reversing or plate-glazing calendar, 

Revolving knife, 161 

cutter, 162 

strainer and knotter, 137 
Rhamnus catharticus, 169 
Ritter and Kellner's process, 71 
Roeckner's boiler, 45 

clarifier, 199 

evaporator, 206 

pulp strainers, 140 
Roll-bar planing machine, 191 
Rolls, couch, 149 

press, 150 

smoothing, 151, 152 
Rope, 20 

bagging, 20 

hard, 20 

rarred, 20 

white, 20 
Round-ribbed fibres, 5 
Royal, 164 
Russian rags, 21 

Ryan's process for treating waste 
paper, 87 

^ Salt of tartar, 235 
Sampling alkalies, 227 
Sandarac, gum, 179 
Sand-table, 136 

tables, 149 

trap, 50, 136 
Sap green, 169 
Satin papers, stains for, 172 
Save-all, 143 
Sawdust, 10 
Scarlet lake, 171 
Schweinfurth green, 171 
Scoffern and Tidcombe's process for 

waterproof paper, 174 
Sea grass, 11 
Seaweeds, 178 
Second press-roll, 150 
Seconds rags, 20 
Seconds, whites, 20 



Self acting dry felt regulator, 186 
cleansing strainer, 139 
Separating tank, 61 
Setting, 174 

Settling of the pulp, 131 
Sfax esparto, 47 
Shavings, paper, 58 

parchment, 171 

wood, 10, 55 
Shoddy, 11 
Silk cocoon waste, 11 
Silver white, 173 
Sinclair's esparto boiler, 42, 43 

process, 58 
Single-cylinder machine, 152 
Single-sheet cutter, 162 

web-winding machine, 188 
Sizal, or sisal hemp, 8 
Size, animal, preparation of, 122 

engine, French method of pre- 
paring, 120 

resin, 118 
Sizes of paper, 164 
Sizing, 115 

American method of, 123 

and finishing, 132 

machine, 128 

tub or animal, 122 

Mr. Wyatt's remarks on, 127 

zinc soaps in, 121 
Skip, 153 
Small post, 164 
Smalls blue, 121, 165 
Smoothing presses, three-roll, 194 

rolls, 151, 152 
Soap, Castile, 121 

cotton-seed oil, 121 

resin, 116 
Soaps, zinc, in sizing, 121 
Soda, anbvdrous, 225 

ash, "31, 227 

calcined, 93 

carbonate, 31 

caustic, 31 

table showing the quan- 
tities of leys of different 
densities, 243 

dry, Dalton's table, showing the 
proportion of, in leys of diffe- 
rent densities, 241 

hydrate of , 225 

hypochlorite of, 8 

hyposulphite of, 110 

ley, caustic, 31 

racovery of , 104 

Soda, recovery of, American sj'stem cf, 

solutions, caustic, table showing 
strength of, 241 

sulphite of, 110 

thiosulphite of, 110, 233 
Sodas, commercial, examination of, 

Sodium, chloride of, 95, 109 

hypochlorite of, 96 

thiosulphite of, 233 
Sorting rags, 19, 22 
Sour bleaching, 91 
Souring, 99 
Spanish annotta, 238 

esparto, 47 
¡Spent liquors, recovery of soda from, 

liquors, 218 
Spiral fibres, 8 
Spruce, 60 
Stable manure, 11 
Staining power of ultramarines, 240 
Stains for Morocco papers, 171 

satin papers, 172 
Standard test-acid solution, 225 
Starch paste, 117 

Strainer and knotter, Bertrams' re- 
volving, 137 

self -cleansing, 139 
Stiainers, 57, 137 

Eoeckner's pulp, 140 
Straw, 16 

boiling, 81 

buckwheat, 10 

fibres, 4 

wheat, 10 
Strength of paper, determination of 

Strings, 20 
Strong linens, 20 
Stuff-chests, 57, 112, 136 

pump, 136 
Sturtevant blower, 60 
Suction boxes, 148 
Sulphate of alumina, 100 

aniline, 8 

copper, 146 

índigo, 232 

iron, 170 

lime, 100 

magnesia, 46 

zinc, 99, 119 
Sulphide processes, 77 
Sulphite fibre, 76 



Sulphite fibre and resin, 76 

processes, 68 

pulp, 68 

of soda, 110 

wood pulp, 160 
Sulphur, 72, 225 
Sulphuric acid, 47, 91, 99 
anhydrcus, 225 
Sulphurous acid, 175 

gas, 55 
Super-calendering, 157 

American, Mr. Wyatt on, 157 
Superfine white cotton, 20 
Supertínes, white, 20 
Supply-box, 136 
Surface-sizing, 122 
Susa esparto, 47 

TABLE of boiling points of alkaline 
leys, 243 
French and English therrnometer 

scales, 244 
Frencb weights and measures, 

showing proportion of dry soda 
in leys of different densities, 
showing the quantity of bleach- 

ing liquid to be used, 244 
showing the quantity of bleach 
liquor required to be added to 
weaker liquors, 244 
showing the quantity of caustic 
sodas in leys of different den- 
sities, 243 
showing the specific gravity cor- 
responding with the degrees of 
Baumé's hydrometer, 242 
of strength of caustic soda solu- 
tions, 241 
of weights and measures of the 
metrical system, 245 
Tables and notes, 235 

sand, 149 
Tan waste, 10 
Tarpaulin, 11, 77 
Tarred hemp, 20 
rope, 20 
string, 20 
Tartar, salts of, 235 
Tea colour, 167 

Test acid, preparation of, 224, 225 
for chlorine, 110 
liquor, 232 
papers, 183 

Tesling chloride of lime, 232 

ultramarines, 239 
Therrnometer scales, comparative 

French and English, 244 
Thiosulphite of soda, 110 

sodium, 233 
Thirds, whites, 20 
Thompson's bleaching process, 97 
Three-roll smoothing process, 194 
• Thune's process, 79 
I Tiles, paper, 175 
¡ Tin, citrate of, 169 

perchloride of, 236 
! Tobacco stalks, 10 
i Toned paper, 165 
, Torrance's drainer, 39 
Toughening paper, 178 
Tracing paper, 179 
Tragacanth, gum, 168 
Transparent paper, 179 
Treatment of esparto, 40 
rags, 19, 29 
various fibres, 80 
wood, 53, 68 
Triethyl rose aniline, 98 
Trípoli esparto, 47 
Tub-sizing, 122 
Turmeric paper, 183 
Turkish minium, 170 
Turkey rags, 21 

red, 170 
Turpentine, oil of, 179 

Venice, 179 
Twaddell's hydrometer, 238 


*-* artificial, preparation of, 238 

Ultramarines, staining power of, 240 

testing, 239 
Umpherston's beating-engine, 105 
Unbleached cottons, 20 

yACUUM pumps, 149 

' Vanadate of ammonia, 72 
Various fibres, treatment of, 80 
Varnished paper, 179 
Varrentrapp's zinc bleach liquor, 100 
Vat for hand paper-making, 129 
Vegetable fibres, micrograpic examina- 

tion of, 5 
Vegetable fibres, recognition of, by 

the microscope, 6 
Vegeto-mineral paper, 115 
Venetian red, 166 
Venice turpentine, 179 



Verdigris, 169 

Verny's paper-cutting machine, 187 

Violet, 171 

dark, 172 
light, 171 
Vitriol, oil of, 57, 90, 106 
Voelter's process for preparing mecha- 

nical wood pulp, 78 
Volumetric assaying, 224 
Vulcanised india-rubber, 223 
Vulcanite, 148 

VASHING, American, 61 
boiled esparto, 49 
and breaking, 34 

engine, 37 
cylinder for rag-engine, 193 
Waste, cotton, 10 

cotton seed, 10 

flax, 10 

hemp, 10 

jute, 10 

linen, 10 

liquors, recoveryof soda f rom, 204 

paper, 10, 85 

boiling, 86 

Ryan's process for, 87 
tan, 10 
Water-marked paper, 130 
Water-marking, 146 
Water-marks, De la Rue's improve- 

ments in, 147 
Waterproof composition for paper, 177 
paper, 174 

for flooring, 177 
Jouglet's process, 177 
for roofing, 177 
Watt and Burgess's wood-paper process, 

Watt's electrolytic bleaching process, 

Wax, 6, 120 

soap, 169 
Web-glazing, 154 

calender, Bertrams', 196 
Web-ripping machine, 198 
Weights and measures, French table 

of , 245 
Weights and measures of the metrical 

system, 245 
Wet machines, 57 
White cellulose, 76 
copal, 179 
hemp, 20 
lead, 171 

White linens, 20 

Willow and duster, Bertrams', 25 

Masson, Scott, and Co.'s, 40 
Willowing, 24 

esparto, 41 
Wilson's bleach liquor, 100 
Winding machine, single-web, 188 
Wood, acid treatment of, 64 

fibre, 53 

paper, Watt's patent for, 17 

pulp, American method of pre- 
paring, 60 

pulp, chemical, 54 

mechanical, 113 

shavings, 10, 55, 77 

pulp, sulphite, 160 

treatment of, 53, 68 - 

pulp, Voelter's mechanical pro- 
cess for preparing, 78 

waste, dyers', 10 
Woollen rags, 21 
Wrapping papers, 178 
Wright's process for preparing cupro- 

ammonium, 175 
Writing papers, 164 
Wyatt, Mr., on American refining en- 
gines, 103 

on American super-calendering, 
Wyatt, Mr., on sizing, 127 


YANKEB machine, 152 
J- Yaryan evaporator, 208 
Yellow chrome, 166 

gold envelope, 167 

lake, 238 

ochre, 165, 166 

palé, 172, 173 

pine fibre, 4 
Young's method of bleaching, 100 
Young and Pettigrew's process, 66 
Young's process for cleaning esparto, 

ZINC bleach liquor, 99 
chloride of, 99 

oxide of, 99, 100 
salts, 100 _ 
soaps in sizine", 121 
sulphate of. 99, 119 
Zostera marina, 11 


Stationers' Hall Court, London, E.C. 







Solé Agents for the United States 









PLY 35 






COMMERCE, TABLES, &c. . . . 49 

ING 50 





A Treatise on the Handling of Material, such as Coal, Ore, Timber, etc., 
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Third Edition, Revised throughout, and much Enlarged. Folio, half- 

bound In Press 

Part I: Measures. — Circumferences and Áreas, &c. — Squares, 
Cubes, Fourth Powers. — Square and Cube Roots. — Surface of Tubes. 
— Reciprocals. — Logarithms. — Mensuration. — Specific Gravities and 
Weights. — Work and Power. — Heat. — Combustión. — Expansión and 
Contraction. — Expansión of Gases. — Steam. — Static Forces. — Gravi- 


Forces. — Accumulated Work. — Centre and Radius of Gyration. — 
Momikt of Inertia. — Centre of Oscillation. — Electricity. — Strength 
of Materials. — Elasticity. — Test Sheets of Metals. — Friction. — 
Transmission of Power. — Flow of Liquids. — Flow of Gases. — Air 
Pumps, Surface Condensers, &c. — Speed of Steamships. — Propellers. — 
Cutting Tools. — Flanges. — Copper Sheets and Tubes. — Screws, Nuts, 
Bolt Heads, &c. — Various Recipes and Miscellaneous Matter. — With 
DIAGRAMS for Valve-gear, Belting and Ropes, Discharge and Suc- 
tion Pipes, Sceew Propellers, and Copper Pipes. 

Part II: Treating of Power of Boilers. — Useful Ratios — Notes 
on Construction. — Cylindrical Boiler Shells. — Circular Furnaces. 
Flat Plates. — Stays. — Girders. — Screws. — Hydraulic Tests. — Rtvet- 
ing. — Boiler Setting, Chimneys, and Mountings. — Fuels, &c. — Exam- 
ples of Boilers and Speeds of Steamships. — Nominal and Normal 
Horse Power. — With DIAGRAMS for all Boiler Calculations and 
Drawings of many Varieties of Boilers. 


Comprising Modern Rules, Tables, and Data. For Engineers, Mill- 
wrights, and Boiler Makers; Tool Makers, Machinists, and Metal 
Workers; Iron and Brass Founders, etc. By W. S. Hutton, Civil 
and Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Practical Engineer's Hand- 
book." Sixth Edition, carefully Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, strongly 

boun d $6.00 

%W~ The Author having compiled Rules and Data for his own use in a great 
variety of modern engineering work, and having found his notes extremely use- 
ful, decided to publish them — revised to date — believing that a practical work, 
suited to the daily requirements of modern engineers, would be favorably 

"The Author treats every subject from the point of view of one who has 
collected workshop notes for application in workshop practice, rather than 
from the theoretical or literary aspect. The volume contains a great deal 
of that kind of information which is gained only by practical experience 
and is seldom written in books." — The Engineer. ' 


A Practical Handbook for Engineers, Boiler-makers, and Steam Users. 
Containing a large Collection of Rules and Data relating to Recent Prac- 
tice in the Design, Construction, and Working of all Kinds of Stationary, 
Locomotive, and Marine Steam-boilers. By Walter S. Hutton, 
Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's 
Handbook," "The Practical Engineer's Handbook," &c. With up- 
wards of 500 Illustrations. Fourth Edition, carefully Revised and 

Enlarged. 8vo, over 680 pages, cloth, strongly bound $6.00 

t^~This Work is issued in continuation of the series of handbooks 
written by the Author, viz: "The Works' Manager's Handbook" and 
"The Practical Engineer's Handbook," which are so highly appreciated 
by engineers for the practical nature of their information, and is consequently 
written in the same style as those works. 

Contents: — Heat, Radiation, and Conduction, Non-conductin g 
Materials, and Coverings for Steam Boilers. — Composition, Calorific 
Power, and Evaporative Power of Fuels. — Combustión, Firing Steam 
Boilers, Products of Combustión, &c. — Chimneys for Steam Boilers. — 


Steam Blast.^-Force Draüght.'^Feed Water. — Effect of Heat on 
Water. — Expansión of Water by Heat. — Weight of Water at Differ- 

ent temperatures. convection. clrculation. evaporation. 

Properties of Saturated Steam. — Evaporative Power of Boilers. — 
Priming, &c. — Water-Heating Surfaces of Steam Boilers. — Trans- 
mission of Heat. — Smoke Tubes. — Evaporative Powers and Effi- 
ciency of Boilers. — Water Capacity and Steam Capacity of Boilers. — 
Fire-Grates, Fire-Bridges, and Fire-Bars. — Power of Boilers. — 
Cylindrical Shells and Furnace-Tubes of Boilers, &c. 

Tests of Materials. — Strength and Weight of Boiler-Plates. — 
Effect of Temperature on Metals. — Rivet Holes. — Rivets. — Rivet 
Joints of Steam Boilers. — Catjlking. — Ends of Cylindrical Shells. — 
Stays for Boilers, &c. — Steam Generators. — Description and Pro- 
portions of Cornish, Lancashire, and Other Types of Stationary 
Boilers. ■ — Boiler Setting. — Multitubular Boilers. — Locomotive 
Boilers. — Portable Boilers. — Marine Boilers. — Vertical Boilers. — 
Water-tübe Boilers. — Superheaters. — Cost of Steam Production. — 
Furnaces for Refuse Fuels. — Destructors, &c. 

Safety-Valves. — Steam Pipes. — Stop-Valves, and Other Mountings 
for Boilers. — Feed Pumps. — Steam Pumps. — Feed-Water Consumption. 
— Injectors. — Incrtjstation and Corrosión. — Feed-Water Heaters. — 


Steam Boilers. Steam-Boiler Explosions, &c. 

A Practical Handbook for Workshop Operations. By Joseph G. Hob- 

ner, A.M.I.M.E. 380 pp. with 338 Illustrations. 12mo cloth. .$3.00 

Contents: — The Trade. — Tools. — Materials. — Testing Materials. — 

llmiting dlmensions and weights of materials. cutting and 

Straightening Plates, &c. — Bending Plates. — Bending Angles, &c. — 
Welding. — Flanging. — Ptjnching. — Riveting. — Types of Riveted 
Joints. — Estimation of Lengths of Material. — The Marking Odt of . 
Work. — The Estimation of Weights, &c. — Machines. 


Their Strength, Construction, and Economical Working. By R. Wil- 

son, CE. Fifth Edition. 12mo, cloth $2.50 

"The best treatise that has ever been published on steam boilers." — En- 


Their Draught-Power and Stability. With a chapter on Lightnino Con- 
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Steam Boilers," etc. 12mo, cloth $1.50 


In Drawing, Templating, and Calculating Boiler Work, etc. By J. 
Courtney, Practical Boilermaker. Edited by D. K. Clark, C.E. 
Seventh Edition. 12mo, cloth .80 


With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating for the Use of 
Platers, Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtney. Edited by D. 
K. Clark, M.Inst.C.E. Crown 8vo, cloth $1.60 


With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating for the Use of 
Platers, Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtney. Edited by D. K. 
Clark, M.Inst.C.E. Fifth Edition, 480 pp., with 140 Illustrations. 
Fcap. 8vo, half-bound $3.00 

*** This Work consists o f the two previous-mentioned voluntes, "Boiler- 
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Their Construction and Management. By R. Armstrong, CE. Illus- 
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Comprising a Treatise on Modern Engines and Boilers; Marine, Loco- 
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ing all kinds of Engines, Boilers, and other Engineermg Work. The 
wnole constituting a comprehensive Key to the Board of Trade and 
otner Éxaminations for Certificates of Competency in Modern Mechan- 
ical Engineering. By Walter S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical En- 
^jineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook for Engineers," 
&c. VVith upwards of 420 Illustrations. Sixth edition, Revised and 

Enlarged. Médium 8vo, nearly 560 pp., strongly oound $7.00 

CS™ This Work is designed as a companion to the Author's "Works' 
Manager's Handbook." It possesses many nevo and original features, and 
contains, like its predecessor, a quantity of matter not originally intended for 
publication, but collected by the Author for his own use in the construction of a 
great variety of Modern Engineering Work. 

The informaii.m is given in a condensed and concise form, and is illus- 
trated by upwards cf 420 Engravings; and comprises a quantity of tabulated 
matter of great valué lo all engaged in designing, constructing , or estimating for 
Engines, Boilers, and other Engineering Work. 


With a Supplement on Gas Engines and Part II. on Heat Engines 
By T. M. Goodeve, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Professor of Mechanics at 
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Sundry Details. — Boilers. — Index. 

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A Popular Treatise on the Gradual Improvements made in Railway 
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Eighth Edition. Sewed .«J5 

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A Practical Guide for Users and Attendants, being Notes on Selection, 
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Metric Weights and Measures. — Foreign Weights and Measures. — 
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— Water Power. — Speed of Cdtting Tools. — Colours. — Eléctrica! 


Comprising a great Variety of the most useful Rules and Formula; in 
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book," &c. Fcap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 8 Plates and upwards of 
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Contents: — Chapter I. Introduction. — II. The Theort and Prac- 
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Compression Process (Continued). — VII. The Compression Process (Con- 
tinued). — VIII. Condensers and Water-Cooling and Saving Apparattjs. 
— IX. The Absorption and Binary Absorption Process or System. — 
X. The Cold-Air System. — XI. Cocks, Valves and Pipe-Joints and 
Unions. — XII. Refrigeration and Cold Storage. — XIII. Refrigera- 
tion and Cold Storage (Continued). — XIV. Refrigeration and Cold 
Storage (Continued). — XV. Refrigeration and Cold Storage (Con- 
tinued). — XVI. Marine Refrigeration. — XVII. Manufacturing, In- 
dustrial and Constructional Applications. — XVIII. Ice-Making. — 

XIX. The Management and Testing of Refrigerating Machinery. — 

XX. Cost of Working. — XXI. The Production of Very Low Temper- 
atures. — XXII. Useful Tables and Memoranda. — Appendix. — Bibli- 
ography of Refrigeration. 



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tity of Water to be Provided. — IV. On Ascertaining whether a Pro- 


Capacity Required to be Provided. — VI. Classification of Water- 
works. — VII. Impounding Reservoirs. — VIII. Earthwork Dams. — IX. 
Masonry Dams. — X. The Purification of Water. — XI. Settling Res- 
ervoirs. — XII. Sand Filtration. — XIII. Purification of Water by 
Action of Iron, Softening of Water by Action of Lime, Natural 
Filtration. — XIV. Service or Clean Water Reservoirs — Water 
Towers — Stand Pipes. — XV. The Connection of Settling Reservoirs, 
Filter Beds and Service Reservoirs. — XVI. Pumping Machinery. — 

XVII. Flow of Water in Conduits — Pipes and Open Channels. — 

XVIII. Distribution Systems. — XIX. Special Provisions for the Ex- 
tinction of Fire. — XX. Pipes for Water-works. — XXI. Prevention 
of Waste of Water. — XXII. Various Appliances used in Connection 
with Water-works. 

Appendix I. By Prof. JOHN MILNE, F.R.S. — Considerations Con- 
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the Special Precautions to be Taken in Earthquake Countries. 

Appendix II. By JOHN DE RIJKE, CE.— On Sand Dunes and Dune 
Sand as a Source of Water Supply. 


By William Humber, A.M.Inst.C.E., and M.Inst.M.E., Author of 
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London, Head of the Electrical Engineering Department, Yorkshire 
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By Samuel Sheldon, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Physics and Electrical 
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In two volumes, sold separately, as follows: — 
Vol. I— DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES. Fifth Edition, Revised. 

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Acetylene Gas, Gibbs, 42 

Acoustics, Smith, 35 

Aerial Navigation, Walker, 11 

Tramways, Tayler, 2 

Agricultural Geology, McCon- 

nett, 50 

Note Book, McConnell, 52 

Surveying, Scott, 5 1 

Air Machín ery, Weisbach, 9, 22 
Algebra, Haddon, 54 
Alkali Trade, Lomas, 42 
Alphabets, Delamotte, 39 
Alternating Current Machines, 

Sheldon and Masón, 29 
Animal Physics, Lardner, 56 

Physiology, Lardner, 41 

Arches, Piers, &c, Bland, 32 
Architect's Guide, Rogers, 34 
Architectural Modelling, Rich- 

ardson, 34 
Architecture, Ancient, 34 

Civil, Chambers, 34 

Design, Garbett, 34 

Grecian, Aberdeen, 35 

Mechanics of, Tarn, 34 

■ Modern, 34 

■ — — of Vitruvius, Gwilt, 35 

Orders, Leeds, 34 

Orders and Styles, 34 

Styles, Bury, 34 

Arithmetic, Haddon, 54 

Young, 54 

Equational, Hipsley, 54 

Armature, Windings, Arnold, 29 
Artists' Pigments, Standage, 43 
Asbestos, Jones, 27 
Astronomical Glossary, Gore, 40 
Astronomy, Lardner, 41 
Main and Lynn, 40 

Barn Implements, Scott, 51 

Beams, Flexure of, Guy, 18 

Bees, Samson, 53 

Blasting, Burgoyne, 19 

Blowpipe, Ross, 42 

Boiler and Factory Chimneys, 

Wilson, 4 
Boilers, Armstrong, 5 

Bauer, 20 

Courtney, 3 

Foley, 3 

Horner, 4 

Hutton, 3 

Wilson, 4 

Book-keeping, Haddon, 54 
Boot and Shoe Making, ¿ewo, 44 
Brass Founding, Graham, 45 
Bread and Biscuit Baker, Wells, 
Breakfast Dishes, Alien, 47 
Brewing and Malting, Wright, 

Brick and Tile Book, 33 

Making, Dobson, 32 

Brick-cutting, Hammond, 32 
Bricklaying, Hammond, 32 




Brickwork, Walker, 32 
Bridges, Iron, Humber, 16 

Iron, Pendred, 16 

Oblique, Buck, 16 

Tubular, Dempsey, 17 

Bridges and Viaducts, Campin, 

British Mining, Hunt, 25 
Builders' Measuring, Beatón, ^>Z 

Quantities, Beatón, 33 

Building, a Book on, Beckett, 31 

Art of, Dobson, 31 

Construction, Alien, 31 

■ Cottage, Alien, 31 

Dwelling Houses, Brooks, 

Estates, Maitland, 31 

Farm, Scott, 32 

Science of, Tarn, 31 

Cabinet-Making, Bitmead, 37 

Working, Hasluck, 48 

Calculator, O'Gorman, 56 
Calculus, Differential, Woolhouse, 


Integral, Cox, 55 

Carpenter's Guide, Nicholson, 

Carpentry and Joinery, Tredgold 

and Tarn, 37 

Tredgold, 37 

Cattle, Sheep, &c, Burn, 50 
Cements, &c, Standage, 47 
Chain Cables, Traill, 20 
Chemistry of Mining, Byrom, 26 
Chimneys, Wilson, 4 
Circular Work, Collings, 37 
Civil Engineering, Law, 18 
Clock Jobbing, Hasluck, 48 
Clocks, Watches, and Bells, 

Beckett, 45 
Coach-Building, Burgess, 47 
Coal & Iron Industries, Meade, 

Mining, Cockin, 26 

Smyth, 26 

Colliery Manager, Pamely, 25 

Working, Bulman and Red- 

mayne, 26 

Colouring, .FYe/á ¿^ Davidson, 

Colours & Dye Wares, Slater, 

Commerce, Gámbaro, 49 
Commercial Correspondence, 

Baker, 49 
Compound Interest, Thoman, 

Concrete, Sutcliffe, 33 
Confectioner, Flour, Wells, 47 
Confectionery, P^VZ/s, 46 
Constructional Ironwork, 

Campin, 17 
Copper, Metallurgy of. Eissler, 

Cottage Building, Alien, 31 

Gardening, Hobday, 52 

Cotton Manufacture, Lister, 

Cranes, Glynn, 11 
Creation, Records of, Le Vaux, 

Curves, Tables of, Beazeley, 15 
Cyanide Process, Eissler, 23 

Dairying, British, Sheldon, 50 
Dairy, Pigs, and Poultry, Burn, 

5 o 
Dangerous Goods, Phillips, 42 
Decoration, Facey, 38 
House-Painting, Graining, 

&c, 38 
Imitation of Woods and 

Marbles, 38 

Marble, Blagrove, ~Q9 

Decorator's Assistant, 39 

Deep Level Mines of the Rand, 

Denny, 22 
Diamond Drilling, Denny, 23 
Dictionary of Architecture, 

Weale and Hunt, 56 

Painters, Dar y l, 56 

Direct Current Machines, Sheldon 

and Masón, 29 
Drainage of Lands, Clark, 14 

(Mine), Michell, 25 

Draining & Embanking, Scott, 



Drawing Instruments, Heather, 

Rules on, Pyne, 34 

Dwelling Houses, Brooks, 32 
Dynamic Electricity, Atkinson, 

Dynamo Construction, Urquhart, 


How to Make, Crojts, 29 

Motor and Switchboard 

Circuifs, Bowker, 29 

Earthwork, Graham, 16 

Tables, Broadbent £3= Cam- 

pin, 16 

Tables, Buck, 16 

Earthy Minerals, Davies, 24 
Electrical Calculations, Atkinson, 


Conductors, Perrine, 29 

Engineering, Alexander, 28 

Sewell, 28 

Pocket Book, Kempe, 30 

Transmission, Abbott, 28 

Electricity Applied to Mining, 
Lupton, Parr, &> Perkin, 25, 28 

Lardner and Foster, 41 

Text-Book, Noad, 30 

Electric Light Fitting, Urquhart, 


Light, Knight, 30 

Light, Urquhart, 30 

Lighting, Swinton, 30 

Ship-Lighting, Urquhart, 30 

Telegraph, Lardner, 41 

Electro-?. : etallurgy, Watt, 45 

Plating, Urquhart, 45 

Plating, Watt and Philip, 


Typing, Urquhart, 45 

Embroiderer's Design, Delamotte, 

Engine-Driving Life, Reynolds, 

Engineering Chemistry, Phillips, 


Drawing, Maxton, 8 

Estimates, 9 

Engineering Tools, Horner, 2 

Engineer's Assistant, Templeton, 


Companion, Edwards, 8 

Field Book, Haskoll, 15 

Handbook, Hutton, 5 

Pocket-Book, Clark, 7 

Reference Book, Foley, 3 

Turning, Horner, 2 

■ Year Book, Kempe, 7 

Engineman's Companion, Reyn- 
olds, 7 
Euclid, ¿aw, 54 
Excavating, Prelini, 16 
Explosives, Eissler, 42 
Nitro, Sanjord, 42 

Factory Accounts, Garcke &" 

JFe//s, 49 
Farm Buildings, Seo//, 32 

Engineering, Sa>/¿, 5 1 

Management, Burn, 5 1 

Roads, &c, Scott, 51 

Farmer's Tables, Francis, 52 
Farming Economy, Burn, 52 

Outlines, Burn, 5 1 

Small, Burn, 5 1 

Fertilisers, &c, Dyer, 50 
Field Fortification, Knollys, 56 

Implements, Scott, 5 1 

Fields of Gt. Britain, Clements, 

5 1 
Fires & Fire Engines, Young, 1 1 
Flour, Xíc^ cm¿ Powles, 46 
Forestry, Curtís, 36 
Foundations, &c, Dobson, 19 
French Polishing, Bitmead, 47 
Fruit Trees, £>m Breuil, 53 
Fuel, Williams and Clark, 10 
Fuels, Phillips, 10 

Garden, Forcing, Wood, 52 

Receipts, Qmí'w, 52 

Gardening, Good, Wood, 52 

Ladies', Wooc?, 53 

Multum-in-Parvo, íFood, 

5 2 
Gas and Oil Engines, Bale, 7 
Engines, Goodeve, 7 



Gas Engineer's Pocket Book, . 

O'Connor, 42 

Fitting, Black, 47 

Producer Plants, Mathot, 


Works, Hughes, 18 

Geology, Historical, Tate, 27 

Physical, Tate, 27 

Tate, 27 

Geometry, Tarn, 17 

Analytical, Hann, 55 

Descriptive, Heather, 54 

Technical, Sprague, 1 7 

of Compasses, Byrne, 17 

Plañe, Heather, 54 

Girders (Iron), Buck, 17 

Glass Staining, Gessert and 

Fromberg, 40 
Gold Assaying, Phillips, 23 

and Silver, Merritt, 23 

Metallurgy of, Eissler, 23 

Prospecting, Rankin, 23 

Goldsmith s Handbook, Gee, 45 

and Silversmith, Gee, 46 

Grafting and Budding, Ballet, 

Granites, Harris, 27 
Grazier, Complete, Fream, 50 

Hall Marking Jewellery, Gee, 

Handrailing, Collings, 37 

Goldthorp, 37 

Hay & Straw Measurer, Steele, 

5 2 
Health Officer, Willoughby, 35 
Heat (Expansión by), Keily, 18 
Heat, Lardner and Loewy, 41 
Heating by Hot Water, Jones, 

Hints to Architects, Wightwick 

andGuillaume, 34 
Hoisting Machinery, Horner, 2 
Hoisting & Conveying Ma- 
chinery, Zimmer, 2 
Horology, Saunier, 44 
Horticulture, Newsham, 52 
House Decoration, Facey, 38 
Painting, D&vidson, 39 

Hydraulic Manual, Jackson, 13 

Engineering, Marks, 13 

Tables, Neville, 13 

Hydrostatics, Lardner, 41 

Illumination, Delamotte, 39 
India Rubber, Johnson, 43, 53 
Inflammable Gas, Clowes, 26 
Iron and Steel, Hoare, 8 
Iron, Metallurgy of, Bauerman, 

2 5 
Ores, Kendall, 25 

Píate Weight Tables, 

Burlinson and Simpson, 49 
Irrigation, Mawson, 11 

and Water Supply, Seo//, 

5 1 

Jeweller's Assistant, Gee, 45 
Joints (Builders'), Christy, 37 

Key to Haddon's Algebra, 54 

to Young's Arithmetic, 54 

Kitchen Gardening, Glenny, 52 

Land, Ready Reckoner, Arman, 

(Reclamation of), Beaze- 

ley, 12 

Landed Estates, Burn, 51 

Lathe Work, Hasluck, 9 

Laundry, Management, 47 

Lead ( Argén tiferous), Eissler, 

Leather Manufacture, Watt, 44 
. Letter Painting, Badenoch, 39 
Levelling, Simms, 15 
Light, Tarn, 35 
Light Railways, Calthrop, n 
Lightning Conductors, Hedges, 

3 2 
Limes, Cements, Burnell, 33 
Locks, Tomlinson, 47 
Locomotive Engine, Stretton, 6 

Engine, Weatherburn, 6 

Engine Driving, Reynolds, 6 

Engineer, Reynolds, 6 

Engines, Dempsey, 6 



Logarithms, Law, 53 

Machine Shop Tools, 2 
Machinery, Details, Campin, 9 
Marble Decoration, Blagrove, 

Marine Engineering, Brewer, 
— — Engineer, Wannan, 20 

Eijgineer's Pocket Book, 

Wannan, 20 
Marine Engines & Boilers, 
Bauer, Donkin and Robertson, 


Engines, Murray, 20 

Market Gardening, Shaw, 52 
Masonry, P urdíase, 32 

and Stone-Cutting, Dob- 

son, 32 

Dams, Courtney, 13 

Masting and Rigging, Kipping, 
Materials, Campin, 18 

(Strength of), Barlow, 18 

Handling of , Zimmer, 1 

Mathematical Insts., Heather, 


Heather & Walmisley, 55 

Tables, Law and Young, 

22, 53 
Mathematics, Campin, 53 
Measures, Weights, &c, Wool- 

house, 56 
Measuring Builders' Work, 

Dobson and Tarn, 33 

Timber, &c, Horton, 33 

Meat Production, Ewart, 50 
Mechanical Dentistry, Hunter, 

■ Engineering, Campin, 9 

■ Handling of Material, 

Zimmer, 1 

Terms, Lockwood, 8 

Mechanics, Hughes, 9 

Lardner and Loewy, 40 

Tomlinson, 10 

of Air Machinery, Weis- 

bach, 9, 22 
(Tables for), Smith, 8 

Mechanics' Companion, Tem- 
pleton and Hutton, 8 

Workshop, Hasluck, 48 

Mechanism, Baker, 10 
Mensuration & Gauging, Mant, 

and Measuring, Baker, 

x 7 
Metal Turning, Hasluck, 48 

Metalliferous Minerals, Davies, 

Mining Machinery, Davies, 

Metric Tables, Dowling, 49 
Metrology, Jackson, 49 
Microscope, Faw Heurck, 40 
Milk, Cheese, &c, Oliver, 50 
Milling Machines, Horner, 2 
Mine Drainage, Michell, 25 
Mines of the Rand, Denny, 22 
Mineral Surveyor. Lintern, 27 
Mineralogy, Ramsay, 27 
Miners' Handbook, Milne, 25 

Pocket Book, Power, 24 

Mining, British, Hunt, 24 
Calculations, O'Donahue, 


Chemistry of, Byrom, 26 

Students, Notes for, Meri- 

vale, 26 

Tools, Morgans, 27 

and Quarrying, Collins, 

Model Engineer, Hasluck, 48 
Mollusca, Woodwanf, 40 
Motor Cars, Tayler, n, 47 

Vehicles, Tayler, 1 1 

Museum of Science and Art, 

Lardner, 41 
Music, Spencer, 56 

Natural Philosophy, Tomlinson, 


— — ■ for Schools, Lardner, 

Naval Architect's Pocket Book, 
Mackrow, 20 

Architecture, Peake, 2 1 

Navigation, Young, 22 



Navigation, Greenwood and 

Rosser, 21 
Practical, 21 

Oil Fields of Russia, Thompson, 
22, 41 
Oils, Analysis of, Wright, 41 
Optical Instruments, Heather, 

Optics, Lardner 6° Harding, 41 
Organ Building, Dickson, 47 

Packing Case Tables, Richard- 
son, 38 
Painting, Qullick ¿b° Timbs, 40 
Paper, Parkinson, 43 

Making, Clapperton, 43 

Wa«, 43 

Pastrycook's Guide, Wells, 46 
Patents, Hardingham, 56 
Pattern Making, Hasluck, 48 

Horner, 8 

Perspective, Ferguson, 33 

Pyne, 34 

Pianoforte, Spencer, 56 
Pioneer Engineering, Dobson, 

Plastering, Kemp, 33 
Plating & Boilermaking, iíor- 

wer, 4 
Plumbing, Buchan, 33 
Pneumatics, Tomlinson, 19 
Pocketbook, Agriculturist's, 

Francis, 55 

■ McConnell, 52 

■ ■ Builder's, Beatón, 33 

Electrical, Kempe, 30 

- Engineer's, Clark, 7 

Edwards, 8 

Fletcher, 8 

■ Hasluck, 9 

■ Kempe, 7 

Smiih, 8 

Templeton, 8 

■ Engineman's, Reynolds, 6 

Gas Engineer's, O'Connor, 

— Health Officer's, Willoughby, 


Pocketbook, Marine Engineer's, 

Mackrow, 20 

Wannan, 20 

of Mensuration and 

Measuring, Mant, 41 

Miner's, Milne, 25 

Power, 24 

— — Mining Prospecto r's, 

Anderson, 24 

■ Merritt, 24 

■ Rankin, 23 

■ of Refrigeration, Tayler, 

Portable Engine, Wansbrough, 

Portland Cement, Faija and 

Butler, 33 
Portuguese Dictionary, Elwes, 

Grammar, Elwes, 56 

Producer-Gas Plants, Mathot, 6 
Prospector's Handbook, Ander- 
son, 24 
Pumps and Pumping, Bale, 10 

Quantities (Builders'), Beatón, 33 

Railway Brakes, Reynolds, 6 

Working, Stretton, 19 

Reclamation of Land, Beazeley, 


Refrigerating Machinery, Tay- 

ler, 11 
Refrigeration, Tayler, 10 

(Pocket Book), Tayler, 11 

River Bars, Mann, 14 
Roads and Streets, Law, 16 
Roof Carpentry, Collings, 37 
Roofs, Construction of, Tarn, 
Rothamsted Experiments, 

Tipper, 50 

Sailmaking, Kipping, 21 

Sadler, 2 1 

Sanitary Work, 5/a^, 36 
Savouries and Sweets, Alien, 



Saw Mills, Bale, 36 
Screw Threads, Hasluck, 9 
Sea Terms, Pirrie, 21 
Sewage, Irrigation, Burn, 52 

Purification, Barwise, 36 

Sewing Machinery, Urqiihart, 

Sheep (The), Spooner, 50 
Sheet-Metal Work, Crane, 46 

Work* Wam &*> Horner, 

Shoring, Blagrove, 32 
Ship Building, Sommerfeldt, 21 

Germán, Felskowski, 21 

Ships and Boats, Bland, 21 
Silver, Metallurgy of, Eissler, 24 
Silversmith's Handbook, Gee, 45 
Slate Quarrying, D avies, 27 
Sude Rule, Hoare, 53 
Smithy and Forge, Crane, 9 
Soap Making, #a#, 44 
Soils, Burn, 50 
Spanish Dictionary, Elwes, 56 

Grammar, Elwes, 56 

Specifications, Bartholomew, 31 

in Dctail, Macey, 31 

Star Groups, Gore, 40 
Statics, Graham, 17 

and Dynamics, Baker, 55 

Stationary Engine Driving, 
Reynolds, 6 

Steam Engines, Hurst, 6 

Steam and Machinery Manage- 
ment, Bale, 7 

and Steam Engine, Clark, 

Steam Boiler Construction, Hut- 
ton, 3 

■ Boilers, Armstrong, 5 

Wilson, 4 

Engine, Baker, 6 

Goodeve, 5 

Haeder and Powles, 5 

Lardner, 6 

Safe Use of, 7 

Stone Working Machinery, 

Bale, 11 
Strains in Girders, Humber, 17 
on Ironwork, Shields, 1 7 

Submarine Telegraphs, Bright, 

Superficial Measuremnt, 

Hawkings, 38 
Survey Practice, Jackson, 14 
Surveying, Baker and Dixon, 14 

Frome and Warren, 15 

Instruments, Heather, 55 

Land & Marine, Haskoll, 14 

■ Subterraneous, Fenwick, 27 

Usill, 14 

Whitelaw, 14 

with Tacheometer, Ken- 
nedy, 14 

Tea Machinery, Tayler, 46 
Technical Guide, Beatón, 33 

Terms, Fletcher, 8 

Timber Importer, Grandy, 37 

■ Merchant, Dowsing, 37 

Richardson, 38 

Toothed Gearing, Horner, 9 
Tramways, Clark, 16 
Transmission by Electricity, 

Atkinson, 29 
Tra verse Tables, Lintern, 27 
Tree Planter, W^oo¿, 53 

Pruner, Wood, 53 

Trigonometry, Plañe, Hann, 55 

Spherical, Hann, 55 

Trusses, Griffiths, 18 
Tunnelling, Prelini and Hill, 15 

■ Simms and Clark, 15 

Tunnel Shafts, 5«c^, 16 
Turning, Engineers', Horner, 2 

Lathe, Hasluck, 9 

Metal, Hasluck, 48 

■ Wood, Hasluck, 48 

Ventilation of Buildings, Buchan, 
Villa Architecture, Wickes, 34 
Visible Universe, Gott, 40 
Vitruvius' Architecture, Gwilt, 

Watch Jobbing, Hasluck, 48 

Maker, Saunier, 44 

Repairing, Garrard, 44 

Watches, History of, Kendal, 45 



Water Puriñcation, Rideal, 35 

Engineering, Slagg, 13, 35 

Power of, Glynn, 13 

Supply, Humber, 12, 35 

Greenwell and Curry, 


Supply of Towns, Burlón, 

12, 35 
Waterworks, Hughes, 13 
Well-Sinking, Swindell, 13 

Wireless Telegraphy, Sewall, 29 
Wood Carving for Amateurs, 40 

Engraving, Brown, 47 

Turning, Hasluck, 48 

Woods and Marbles, Imitation 

of, Van der Burg, 38 
Woodworking, Hasluck, 48 

Machinery, Bale, 36 

Workshop Practice, Winton, 9 
Works' Manager, Hutton, 3 


\ RRAn'lh